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A Historical Bibliography> Table of Contents> North America

Please credit San Diego State University, Department of Religious Studies in publications. Copyright San Diego State University.

American Freethought—Eighteenth-Century Deism

John Adams and Abigail Adams

Ethan Allen

Benjamin Franklin

Thomas Jefferson

James Madison

James Monroe

Thomas Paine

Elihu Palmer

George Washington

Unitarianism Universalism

Benjamin Rush

William Ellery Channing

John Murray and Judith Sargent Murray

Hosea Ballou

Theodore Parker

Free Religious Association

Francis Ellingwood Abbot and the American Liberal Union

 

 

Nineteenth-Century American Freethought

Abner Kneeland Robert Green Ingersoll D. M. Bennett


Freethought Women Leaders and Writers


Twentieth Century

Individual Freethinkers/Atheists

Joseph Lewis

Clarence Darrow

Marcet Haldeman and Emanuel Julius

Mangasar Magurditch Magasarian

Charles Lee Smith and the AAAA

H. L. Mencken


Unbelief in the Jewish Community

Felix Adler and Ethical Culture

Eustace Haydon

Herbert Wallace Schneider

Joseph L. Blau

Howard B. Radest

Horace Meyer Kallen

Jewish Humanist Movement


Atheism in North America—Post World War II

Madalyn Murray O’Hair and American Atheists

African-American Unbelief

W. E. B. Du Bois

Hubert H. Harrison


Humanism—North America

The Humanist Manifestos

John Dewey

Sidney Hook

Corliss Lamont

Paul Kurtz

The Chicago School


Canada

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American Freethought—Eighteenth-Century Deism

Deism was passed from Europe, especially England, to the American Colonies. In England, it has developed through the eighteenth century as an opinion expressed by members of the Church of England, the established church, to which all belonged who did not specifically declared themselves dissenters of various kinds—mostly Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, or Roman Catholic. It took no separate organizational form but was a popular topic for discussion in various kinds of gatherings including the lodges of the Freemasons, who shared both a rejection of many points of Orthodox Christianity and a similar understanding of a distant deity.

In the American colonies, it developed as an opinion among the emerging intelligencia and was especially popular at several of the institutions of higher learning, most notably Harvard and William and Mary. As in England, it did not take on a separate institutional life though there was on short-lived attempt to found a Deistical society by Elihu Palmer, a ministerial convert to the perspective. Most adherents remained a member of the Anglican Church (after the war known as the Protestant Episcopal Church, or the Congregational church. In the nineteenth century deism died out in Episcopal circles, but would evolve into the Unitarian movement that eventually split the Congregational Church.

Sources

Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Bonwick, Cohn. “Joseph Priestley: Emigrant and Jeffersonian.” Enlightenment and Dissent 2 (1983): 3-22.

Cady, Daniel. “Freethinkers and Hell Raisers: A Brief History of American Atheism and Secularism.” in Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

Clark, John Ruskin. “Joseph Priestley—Empirical Christian,” Unitarian Universalist Christian 34, 4 (1980): 23-36.

Cobb, Standford. H. The Rise of Religious Liberty in America: A History. New York. Macmillan, 1902. 541 pp. Rpt. New York: Cooper Square Publishers, 1968.

Cohen, I. Bernard. Science and the Founding Fathers: Science in the Political Thought of Jefferson, Franklin, Adams, and Madison. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.

Cousins, Norman. In God We Trust: The Religious Beliefs and Ideas of the Founding Fathers. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.

Cragg, Gerald R. Reason and Authority in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1964.

Eastland, Terry, ed. Religious Liberty in the Supreme Court: The Cases That Define the Debate Over Church and State. Washington, DC: Ethics and Public Policy Center/Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993.

Eckenrode, H. J. Separation of Church and State in Virginia: A Study in the Development of the Revolution. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1910; Rpt.: New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.

Flowers, Ronald B. That Godless Court? Supreme Court Decisions on Church-State Relationships. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994.

Gamwell, Franklin I. The Meaning of Religious Freedom: Modern Politics and the Democratic Resolution. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995.

Grasso, Christopher. “Deist Monster: On Religious Common Sense in the Wake of the American Revolution.” Journal of American History 95:1 (June 2008): 43-68.

 Grasso, James V. “Humanism in the Eighteenth Century.” The Humanist 11, 4 (July/August 1951): 175-76.

Harp, Gillis J. “‘The Church of Humanity’: New York’s Worshipping Positivists.” Church History 60 (1991): 508-523.

-----. Positivist Republic: Auguste Comte and the Reconstruction of American Liberalism, 1865-1920. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.2444 pp.

Haynes, Charles C., and Oliver S. Thomas. Finding Common Ground: A First Amendment Guide to Religion and Public Education. Nashville, TN: Freedom Forum First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, 1998.

Hoffman, Ronald, and Peter Alberts, eds. Religion in a Revolutionary Age. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1994.

Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 225 pp.

Kieft, Lester, and Bennett R. Willeford, eds. Joseph Priestley: Scientist, Theologian and Meta-Physician. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1980. 117 pp.

Koch, Gustav A. Religion of the American Enlightenment. 1933. rpt. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968.

Kramnick, Isaac, and R. Lawrence Moore. The Godless Constitution: The Case against Religious Correctness. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996. 192 pp.

LaHaye, Tim. Faith of Our Founding Fathers. Brentwood, TN: Wolgemuth & Hyatt, Publishers, 1987.

Levy, Leonard W. The Establishment Clause: Religion and the First Amendment, 2d ed. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 1994.

Marini, Stephen A. Radical Sects of Revolutionary New England, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982. 220 pp.

May, Henry Farnham. The Enlightenment in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Meacham, Jon. American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of a Nation. New York: Random House, 2007. 448 pp.

Mead, Sidney Earl. The Lively Experiment: The Shaping of Christianity in America (1st ed.). New York: Harper and Row, 1963.

-----. The Nation with the Soul of a Church. New York: Harper and Row, 1975.

-----. The Old Religion in the Brave New World: Reflections on the Relation between Christendom and the Republic. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977

Miller, William Lee. The First Liberty: Religion and the American Republic. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988.

Morais, Herbert M. Deism in Eighteenth Century America. New York: Russell & Russell, 1960. 203 pp.

Noll, Mark. “When `Infidels’ Run for Office.” Christianity Today 28 (October 5, 1984): 20-25. A discussion of the election of 1650.

Peterson, Merrill D., and Robert C. Vaughan, eds. The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Seth Payson. Proofs of the Real Existence, and Dangerous Tendency, of Illuminism: containing an abstract of the most interesting parts of what Dr. Robison and the Abbe Barruel have published on this subject, with collateral proofs and general observations. New Haven, 1802. Rpt. as: Proof of the Illuminati. Arlington, VA: Invisible College Press, 2003. 201 pp. This early text attacking Deism is also now available from various publish-on-demand companies.

Shenkman, Rick. “An Interview with Jon Butler. . . Was America Founded as a Christian Nation?” History News Network (February 20, 2004). Posted at http://hnn.us/articles/9144.html.

Richards, David A. J. Toleration and the Constitution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Riley, I. Woodbridge. American Philosophy, The Early Schools. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1907.

Robbins, Caroline. “Honest Heretic: Joseph Priestley in America, 1794-1804.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106 (1962): 60-76.

Steiner, Franklin. The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: An account of the religious beliefs, and lack of such beliefs, of our chief executives, and a chronicle of the ... and controversies of their administrations. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1936. 190 pp. Rpt. as Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: From Washington to F.D.R. Amherst, NY Prometheus Books, 1995. 190 pp. An abridged text has been published at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/franklin_steiner/presidents.html

Torre, Jose R., ed. The Enlightenment in America, 1720–1825. 4 Vols. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2008. 1360 pp

Walters, Kerry S. The American Deists: Voices of Reason and Dissent in the Early Republic. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1992.

-----. Rational Infidels: The American Deists. Durango, CO: Longwood Academic Press, 1992.

Wood, James E., Jr., and Derek Davis, eds. The Role of Government in Monitoring and Regulating Religion in Public Life. Waco, TX: Baylor University, 1993.

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John Adams (1735-1826) and Abigail Adams (1744-1818)

One of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, John Adams was born John Adams was born October 13, 1735, at Quincy (then known as Braintree), Massachusetts. After graduating from Harvard he became a lawyer. He later became a leading theorist of the leader of the American Revolution, and went on to become the first vice-president and second president of the United States. Abigail Adams, his wife, was born Abigail Smith in 1744 at Weymouth, Massachusetts. Both her father and grandfather were Congregational ministers. Along with her husband, Abrigial joined First Parish, Braintree, where the minister, Lemuel Briant (1722-1754), was an early Unitarian. His denial of some major Calvinist doctrines (original sin, election, and salvation by arbitrary grace) led to a trial by a church council

Abigail died in 1818. John died July 4th, 1826, just a few hours after the passing of Thomas Jefferson. He was laid to rest in a crypt beneath the church he long attended.

The development of this bibliography on the Adams has drawn on “Perspectives in American Literature - A Research and Reference Guide - An Ongoing Project “ by Paul P. Reuben posted at http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap2/adams.html.

Primary Sources

Adams, Abrigail. New letters of Abigail Adams, 1788-1801. Ed. by Stewart Mitchell. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947.

-----, and John Adams. The Book of Abigail and John: selected letters of the Adams family, 1762-1784. Ed. by L. H. Butterfield, Marc Friedlaender, and Mary-Jo Kline. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975.

-----, and John Adams. My Dearest Friend: Letters of Abigail and John Adams. Ed. by Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, and Joseph J. Ellis. Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2007.

The Adams-Jefferson letters; the complete correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Ed. by Lester J. Cappon. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959.

Adams, John. Diary and autobiography. Ed. by L. H. Butterfield. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961.

-----. The Earliest Diary of John Adams; June 1753-April 1754, September 1758-January 1759. Ed. L. H. Butterfield. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966.

-----. Legal papers of John Adams. Eds. L. Kinvin Wroth and Hiller B. Zobel. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.

-----. Papers of John Adams. Ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977.

-----. and Benjamin Rush. The spur of fame, dialogues of John Adams and Benjamin Rush, 1805-1813. Ed. by John A. Schutz and Douglass Adair. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1966.

Secondary Sources

Ferling, John E. John Adams: a life. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1996.

Gelles, Edith B. Portia: the world of Abigail Adams. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

-----. ed. First Thoughts: life and letters of Abigail Adams. New York: Twayne, 1998.

Goff, Philip Kevin. The Religious World of the Revolutionary John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, Ph.D. dissertation, 1993.

Hawke, David F. A Transaction of Free Men: the birth and course of the Declaration of Independence. New York: Da Capo Press, 1989.

Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 225 pp.

Lossing, B. J. Signers of the Declaration of Independence. New York: George F. Cooledge & Brother, 1848.

McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Murphy, Gretchen. Hemispheric Imaginings: The Monroe Doctrine and Narratives of U.S. Empire. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005.

Nagel, Paul C. Descent from Glory: Four Generations of the John Adams Family. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

-----. The Adams Women: Abigail and Louisa Adams, their sisters and daughters. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Schulz, Constance Bartlett. The Radical Religious Ideas of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams: A Comparison. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati, Ph.D. dissertation, 1973.

Steiner, Franklin. The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: An account of the religious beliefs, and lack of such beliefs, of our chief executives, and a chronicle of the ... and controversies of their administrations. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1936. 190 pp. Rpt. as Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: From Washington to F.D.R. Amherst, NY Prometheus Books, 1995. 190 pp. An abridged text has been published at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/franklin_steiner/presidents.html.

Trees, Andrew S. The Founding Fathers and the Politics of Character. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: a life of Abigail Adams. New York: Free Press, 1981.

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Ethan Allen (1738-1789)

Ethan Allen was a hero of the American Revolution, best known for the efforts he and the Green Mountain Boys made in the taking of Fort Ticonderoga. Returning to farming after the war, he emerged in the public spotlight as the author of one of the new nation’s first skeptical religious treatises, Reason, the Only Oracle of Man. Drawing on themes from British Deism, he attacked the conservative New England clergy for denigrating the dignity of ordinary people. Though widely condemned by the ministers it attacked, it found a popular public audience. Allen died in 1789. His brother Ira wrote a history of the exploits of the Green Mountain boys.

Primary Sources

Allen, Ethan. On Natural Religion... Selections from REASON THE ONLY ORACLE OF MAN. Ed. and abridged by J. Michael McKnight. Burlington, VT: The editor, 2005. 20pp. Posted at www.essentialteachings.com.

-----. Reason the Only Oracle of Man. 1784. Rpt.: Boston J.P. Mendum 1854. 171 pp. Rpt.: New York: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1940. This book is currently available in a variety of the publish-on-demand facsimile formats. Electronic text posted at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/ethan_allen/reason-the_oracle_of_man.html.

Ethan and Ira Allen Collected Works. Ed. by J. Kevin Graffagnino. 3 vols. Benson, Vermont: Chalidze Publications, 1991.

Secondary Sources

Anderson, George Pomeroy. “Who Wrote ‘Ethan Allen’s Bible?’” New England Quarterly 10 (1937).

Bellesiles, Michael. Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the Struggle for Independence on the Early American Frontier. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1995. 444 pp.

Brown, Charles Walter. Ethan Allen of Green Mountain Fame: A Hero of the American Revolution. Chicago: M. A, Donohue & Co., 1902. 281 pp. Posted at http://books.google.com/books

Brown, Slater. Ethan Allan & the Green Mountain Boys. New York: Random House Landmark, 1956.

Dennis, Donald Dean. The Deistic Trio: A Study in the Central Religious Beliefs of Ethan Allen, Thomas Paine, and Elihu Palmer. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah, Ph.D. dissertation.

Gohdes, Clarence. “Ethan Allen and His Magnum Opus.” Open Court 43 (1929).

Holbrook, Stewart H. Ethan Allen. New York: Macmillan Company, 1940. 288 pp.

Hoyt, Edwin P. The Damndest Yankee: Ethan Allen & his Clan. Brattleboro, VT: The Stephen Greene Press, 1976.

Jellison, Charles A. Ethan Allen, Frontier Rebel. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1969.

Moore, Hugh. Memoir of Col. Ethan Allen; Containing the Most Interesting Incidents Connected With His Private and Public Career. Plattsburg, NY: O. R. Cook, 1834. 252 pp.

Morris, Carol. “A Comparison of Ethan Allen’s Reason the Only Oracle of Man and Hosea Ballou’s A Treatise on Atonement.” Journal of the Universalist Historical Society 2 (1961): 34-69.

Pell, John. Ethan Allen. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1929.

Schantz, B. T. “Ethan Allen’s Religious Ideas.” Journal of Religion 18 (1938).

Shapiro [Levy], Darline. “Ethan Allen: Philosopher-Theologian to a Generation of American Revolutionaries.” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd series. 21 (1964).

Walters, Kerry S. The American Deists: Voices of Reason and Dissent in the Early Republic. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1992.

-----. Rational Infidels: The American Deists. Durango, CO: Longwood Academic Press, 1992.

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Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Benjamin Franklin, a leading figure of the American Revolution, was born on January 17, 1706, in Boston, Massachusetts, He was the tenth of seventeen children. Destined for the ministry, he was unable to get the required education due to the financial limitations of his parents. Moving to Pennsylvania, he became a successful printer and publisher. He developed a number of social improvement efforts, made a number of inventions, and became politically active. Franklin was elected to the Second Continental Congress and served on the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence. He later served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and became a signer of the Constitution. He died on April 17, 1790.

Franklin was known for generally supporting religion in Philadelphia, and gave money for the builing of various religious houses. His own opinions about religion, significantly liberal for his day are best presented in two works, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725), and early satirical work in which he lampooned contemporary religion, and Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion 1728), the most complete statement of his personal spiritual beliefs, with obvious deistic leanings.

This highly selective bibliography draws in part on the “Biographical Directory of the United States Congress,” posted at http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/bibdisplay.pl?index=F000342.

Primary Sources

Franklin, Benjamin. Autobiography and Other Writings. 1961. Reprint, selected and edited with an introduction by L. Jesse Hemisch, New York: Signet Classic, 2001.

___. Autobiography, Poor Richard, and Later Writings: Letters from London, 1757-1775, Paris 1776-1785, Philadelphia, 1785-1790, Poor Richard’s Almanack, 1733-1758, The Autobiography. Ed. by J. A. Leo Lemay. New York: Library of America, 1987.

___. Benjamin Franklin: A Biography in His Own Words. Ed. by Thomas Fleming. 2 vols. New York: Newsweek, 1972.

___. Benjamin Franklin: His Life As He Wrote It. Ed. by Esmond Wright. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.

-----. A Benjamin Franklin Reader. Ed. by Walter Isaacson. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. 576 pp.

-----. Benjamin Franklin: Writings. Ed. by J. A. Leo Lamay. New York: Library of America, 1987.

-----. Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography: An Authoritative Text, Backgrounds, Criticism. Ed. by J. A. Leo Lemay and P. M. Zell. A Norton Critical Edition. New York: Norton, 1986.

___. The Compleat Autobiography. Ed. by Mark Skousen. Washington, D. C.: Regnery Publishing, 2006.

___. Franklin on Franklin. Ed. by Paul M. Zall. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2000.

___. The Papers of Benjamin Franklin. 25 volumes. Ed. by Leonard W. Labaree and William B. Willcox. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959.

-----. The Writings of Benjamin Franklin. Ed. by Albert Henry Smyth. 10 vols. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1905-7.

Secondary Sources

Aldridge, Alfred Owen. Benjamin Franklin and Nature’s God. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1967.

-----. Benjamin Franklin, Philosopher & Man. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1965.

-----. Franklin and His French Contemporaries. 1957. Reprint Edition, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976.

-----. “Franklin’s Experimental Religion.” In Roy N. Lorren, ed. Meet Dr. Franklin. Philadelphia: The Franklin Institute, 1981.

Anderson, Douglas. The Radical Enlightenments of Benjamin Franklin (1997) - fresh look at the intellectual roots of Franklin

Becker, Carl. Benjamin Franklin. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1946.

Bowen, Catherine Drinker. The Most Dangerous Man in America: Scenes from the Life of Benjamin Franklin. Boston: Little, Brown, 1974.

Buxbaum, Melvin H. Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin. Boston: G. K, Hall & Co., 1987.

Campbell, James. Recovering Benjamin Franklin: An Exploration Of A Life Of Science and Service. Chicago, IL: Open Court, 1999.

Cohen, I. Bernard. Benjamin Franklin: His Contribution to the American Tradition. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1953.

-----. Benjamin Franklin: Scientist and Statesman. New York: Scribner, 1975.

-----. Science and the Founding Fathers: Science in the Political Thought of Jefferson, Franklin, Adams, and Madison. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.

Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 225 pp.

Huang, Nian-Sheng. Benjamin Franklin in American Thought and Culture, 1790-1938. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Ph. D. dissertation, 1990.

-----. Benjamin Franklin in American Thought and Culture, 1790-1990. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society, 1994.

Humes, James C. The Wit & Wisdom of Benjamin Franklin. Warsaw, Poland: Gramercy Books, 2001.

Isaacson, Walter. Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003. 608 pp.

Ketcham, R. L. Benjamin Franklin. New York: Washington Square Press, 1965.

Lawrence, D. H. Studies in Classic American Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 712 pp. Posted at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/LAWRENCE/dhltoc.htm.

Lopez, Claude-Anne. Mon Cher Papa: Franklin and the Ladies of Paris. Rev. ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

Studies on Benjamin Franklin, The Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of His Birth, January 17, 1956. Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society, 1955.

Van Doren, Carl. Benjamin Franklin. 3 vols. New York The Viking Press 1938.

Walters, Kerry S. Benjamin Franklin and His Gods. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999. 213 pp.

Weaver, Jeanne Moore. Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson: Two American Philosophes Compared. Alburn, AL: Auburn University, Ph. D. dissertation, 1988.

Weinberger, Jerry Benjamin Franklin Unmasked: On the Unity of His Moral, Religious, and Political Thought. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2005. 336 pp.

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Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Born in 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia, Thomas Jefferson went on to become the main author of the declaration of Independence and later the third president of the United States. He attended the College of William and Mary, and then went on to become a lawyer. He also ran a plantation, the site of his mansion, Monticello. An intellectual of prominence, he thought about religious issues and published from his then radical deistic and anticlerical perspective. That perspective led to a variety of actions from his producing an abridged edition of the Bible to his writing a bill establishing religious freedom, in Virginia, enacted in 1786. Jefferson also proposed the phrase “wall of separation” to describe the perspectiev fo the Bill or Rights on the relation of religion and government. He died on July 4, 1826, the same day that John Adams also passed away.

This bibliography is highly selective with a concentration on Jefferson’s religious beliefs and the political policies that flowed from them. For amore complete bibliography see Frank Shuffelton, ed. “Thomas Jefferson: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography of writings about him, 1826-1997,” posted at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/jefferson/bibliog/Dates/. This sight builds on Shuffelton’s earlier book, Thomas Jefferson: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography of Writings about Him: 1826-1980. New York: Garland Publishing, 1983. 486 pp.

Primary Sources

The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigial and John Adams in Two Volumes. Ed. By Lester J. Cappon. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1959.

Jefferson, Thomas. The Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1790. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005. 162 pp.

-----. The Jefferson Bible: The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth. Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.: Beacon Pr, 1991. 171 pp.

-----. Jefferson Himself: The Personal Narrative of a Many-Sided American. Ed. by Bernard Mayo. Charlottesville, VA, University of Virginia Press. 1995, 384 pp.

-----. A Jefferson Profile as revealed in his letters. New York J. Day Co. 1956. 359 p.

-----. Jefferson’s Letters. Selections from the private and political correspondence of Thomas Jefferson, telling the story of American independence and the founding of the American Government. Eau Claire, WI: E. M. Hale and Company, n.d. 374 p.

-----. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Ed. by Adrienne Koch and William Peden. New York: Modern Library, 1944. 756 pp.

-----. Thomas Jefferson Writings. Autobiography, A Summary View of the Rights of British America, Notes on the State of Virginia, Public Papers, Addresses, Messages, and Replies, Miscellany, Letters. 8 vols. New York: Library of America, 1984.

Smith, James Morton, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776-1826. 3 vols. New York: Norton, 1995.

Ye Will Say I Am No Christian: The Thomas Jefferson/John Adams Correspondence on Religion Morals And Values. Ed. by Bruce Braden. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005. 258 pp.

Secondary Sources

Aldridge, A. Owen. “Franklin, Paine, and Jefferson.” In The Dragon and the Eagle: the Presence of China in the American Enlightenment. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1993, pp. 85-97.

Blau, Joseph L. “The Wall of Separation.” Union Seminary Quarterly Review 38 (1984): 263-88.

Boorstill, Daniel J. The Lost World of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1948.

Bryan, Susan. “Reauthorizing the Text: Jefferson’s Scissor Edit of the Gospels,” Early American Literature 22 (1987): 19-42.

Buckley, Thomas E. “After Disestablishment: Thomas Jefferson’s Wall of Separation in Antebellum Virginia.” Journal of Southern History 61 (1995): 445-80.

Buckley, Thomas E. “The Political Theology of Thomas Jefferson.” In Merrill D. Peterson and Robert C. Vaughan, eds. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom: Its Evolution and Consequences in American History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 75-108.

Buie, Jim. “Forgetting Religious Freedom: Why Mr. Jefferson’s Legacy Isn’t Being Taught in America’s Classrooms.” Church and State 39 (April 1986): 80-82.

Carmody, Denise Lardner, and John Tally Carmody. “Thomas Jefferson and Disestablishment” in The Republic of Many Mansions: Foundations of American Religious Thought. New York: Paragon House, 1990, pp. 87-119.

Church, F. Forrester. “Thomas Jefferson’s Bible.” In Ernest S. Frerichs, ed. The Bible and Bibles in America. , ed. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1988, pp. 145-61.

Conkin, Paul K. “Priestley and Jefferson: Unitarianism as a Religion for a New Revolutionary Age.” InRonald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, ed. Religion in a Revolutionary Age. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994, pp. 290-307.

-----. The Religious Pilgrimage of Thomas Jefferson,” In Peter S. Onuf, ed, Jeffersonian Legacies. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993, pp. 19-49.

Cord, Robert L. “Resurrecting Madison and Jefferson.” Separation of Church and State: Historical Fact and Current Fiction. New York: Lambeth Press, 1982, pp. 16-47.

Cunningham, Noble E. The Pursuit of Reason: The Life of Thomas Jefferson. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1987.

Dalal, B. P. “Thomas Jefferson and the Struggle for Religious Freedom in the United States.” Indian Journal of American Studies 22, 2 (1992): 63-68.

Derr, Thomas S. “The First Amendment as a Guide to Church-State Relations: Theological Illusions, Cultural Fantasies, and Legal Practicalities.” In Jaye B. Hensel, ed. Church, State, and Politics. Washington, DC: Roscoe Pound-American Trial Lawyers Foundation, 1981, pp. 75-91.

Dreisbach, Daniel L. “In Pursuit of Religious Freedom: Thomas Jefferson’s Church-State Views Revisited.” In Luis Lugo, ed. in Religion, Public Life, and the American Polity. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1994, pp. 74-111.

-----. “A New Perspective on Jefferson’s Views on Church-State Relations: The Virginia Statute for Establishing Religious Freedom in Its Legislative Context.” American Journal of Legal History 35 (1991): 172-204.

-----. “‘Sowing Useful Truths and Principles’: The Danbury Baptists, Thomas Jefferson, and the ‘Wall of Separation,’“ Journal of Church and State 39 (1997): 455-501.

Dunn, James M. “Neutrality and the Establishment Clause,”In Paul J. Weber, ed. Equal Separation: Understanding the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990, pp. 55-72.

Eidsmoe, John. “Thomas Jefferson.” In John Eidsmoe. Christianity and the Constitution: The Faith of Our Founding Fathers. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1987, pp. 215-46.

Ericson, Edward L. “Freethinker in the White House: Thomas Jefferson.” In Edward Ericson. The Free Mind Through the Ages. Nw York: Ungar, 1985, pp. 105-20.

Fairbanks, Rick. “The Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God: The Role of Theological Claimsin the Argument of the Declaration of Independence.” Journal of Law and Religion 11 (1995): 551-589.

Frank, Willard C., Jr. “Thomas Jefferson’s Religious Journey.” Religious Humanism 20 (Winter, 1986): 8-17.

Gaustad, Edwin S. “Liberty of Religion: For Virginia and Far Beyond.” Valley Forge Journal 3 (1987): 253-71.

-----. “On Jeffersonian Liberty.” In Jerald C. Brauer, ed. The Lively Experiment Continued. Athens, GA: Mercer University Press, 1987, pp. 85-104.

-----. “Religion.” In Merrill D. Peterson, ed. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Biography.
New York: Scribners, 1986, pp. 277-295.

-----. Sworn on the Altar of God: A Religious Biography of Thomas Jefferson. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996. 246 pp.

-----. “Religious Liberty in America: The Contribution of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison,” Indian Journal of American Studies 25 (1995): 1-21.

Goodspeed, Edgar J. “Thomas Jefferson and the Bible.” Harvard Theological Review 40 (1947): 71-76.

Gummerson, William Mitchell. Severing the Gordian Knot: The Search for a Workable Interpretation of the Establishment and Free Exercise Clauses. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, Ph. D. dissertation, 1993. 271 pp.

Gurley, James Lafayette. Thomas Jefferson’s Philosophy and Theology: As Related to His Political Principles Including Separation of Church and State. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Ph.D. dissertation, 1975.

Healey, Robert M. “Jefferson on Judaism and the Jews: `Divided We Stand, United, We Fall!’.” American Jewish History 73 (1984): 359-374.

Healey, Robert M. “Thomas Jefferson’s `Wall’: Absolute or Serpentine?” Journal of Church and State 30 (1988): 441-62. Rpt. In Paul J. Weber, ed. Equal Separation: Understanding the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990, pp. 123-48.

Hill, Kent R. “Religion and the Common Good: In Defense of Pluralism.” This World 17 (1987): 77-87.

Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 225 pp.

Howe, Charles A. “Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Rush: Christian Revolutionaries.” Unitarian Universalist Christian 44, 3-4 (1989): 63-71.

Huddleston, Eugene L. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Guide. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982. 374 pp.

Hunter, C. Bruce. “Jefferson’s Bible: Cutting and Pasting the Good Book” Bible Review 13 (Fall, 1997): 38-41, 46.

Huntley, William B. “Jefferson’s Public and Private Religion.” South Atlantic Quarterly 79 (1980): 286-301.

Jayne, Allen, ed. The Religious and Moral Wisdom of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Vantage Press, 1984. 219 pp.

Kessler, Sanford. “Jefferson’s Rational Religion.” In Sidney A. Pearson, Jr., ed. The Constitutional Polity: Essays on the Founding Principles of American Politics.
Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1983, pp. 58-73.

-----. “Locke’s Influence on Jefferson’s `Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom’.” Journal of Church and State 25 (1983): 231-52.

King, Richard. “Civil Rights and Civil Religion: The Jeffersonian Legacy.” In Gary L. McDowell and Sharon L. Noble, eds. Reason and Republicanism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997, pp. 231-50.

Knittel, Gregory Lawrence. The Euthanasia of Platonic Christianity: Thomas Jefferson, Plato, Religion and Human Freedom. San Jose, CA: San Jose State University, M. A. thesis, 1993. 202 pp.

Konvitz, Milton R. “Religious Liberty: The Congruence of Thomas Jefferson and Moses Mendelssohn.” Jewish Social Studies 49, 2 (1987): 115-24.

Kramer, Lloyd S., ed. Paine and Jefferson on Liberty. New York: Ungar, 1988. 144 pp

Lambert, Frank. “‘God--and a Religious President ... [or] Jefferson and No God’: Campaigning for a Voter-Imposed Religious Test in 1650.” Journal of Church and State 39 (1997): 769-89.

Luebke, Fred C. “The Origins of Thomas Jefferson’s Anti-Clericalism” Church History 32 (1963): 344-356.

Mabee, Charles. “Thomas Jefferson’s Anti-Clerical Bible.” Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 48 (1979): 473-481.

McKenzie, David. “Fundamentalism and Founding Faith.” Religious Humanism 25 (Spring, 1991): 92-101.
McKenzie responds to Baptist minister Tim LaHaye’s attempt in his book Faith of Our Fathers (1987) to present the Founding Fathers as good and orthodox Christians.

Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Times. 6 vols. Boston: Little Brown, 1948-1981.
Currently considered the definitive biographical work on Jefferson. The six volumes include: 1: Jefferson the Virginian, 2: Jefferson and the Rights of Man, 3: Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty, 4: Jefferson the President, First Term 1801-1805, 5: Jefferson the President, Second Term 1805-1809, 6: Jefferson and His Time, The Sage of Monticello.

Peterson, Merrill D. “Jefferson and Religious Freedom.” The Atlantic Monthly 274 (December, 1994): 112-24.

-----. “Jefferson, Madison, and Church State Separation.” In Richard A. Rutyna and John W. Kuehl, eds. Conceived in Conscience: An Analysis of Contemporary Church-State Relations. Norfolk, VA: Donning, 1983, pp. 34-42.

-----. Thomas Jefferson: Religious Liberty and the American Tradition. Fredericksburg, VA: Thomas Jefferson Institute for the Study of Religious Freedom, 1987

Pierard, Richard V. “Separation of Church and State: Figment of an Infidel’s Imagination?” Faith and Freedom: A Tribute to Franklin H. Littell, ed. Richard Libowitz. New York: Pergamon Press, 1987, pp. 143-50.

Popkin, Richard H. “Thomas Jefferson’s Letter to Mordecai Noah.” American Book Collector 8 (June, 1987): 9-11.

Rahe, Paul. “Church and State.” American Spectator 19 (January, 1986): 18-23.

Richards, David A. J. Toleration and the Constitution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Samuelson, Richard A. “What Adams Saw Over Jefferson’s Wall.” Commentary 104 (August, 1997): 52-54.

Sanford, Charles B. The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1984. 246 pp.

Schulz, Constance Bartlett. The Radical Religious Ideas of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams: A Comparison. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati, Ph.D. dissertation, 1973.

Shuffelton, Frank. “Jefferson: Conscience v. Church.” Humanities: The Magazine of the National Endowment for the Humanities 14 (March/April 1993): 17-19.
This article follows up Jefferson’s prediction that Unitarianism would become the general religion of the United States.

Somerville, Terry. “Did America’s Founding Fathers Really Stand on the Word of God?” Christianity Today: 27 (June 17, 1983): 17-19.
The author warns fellow Christians not to turn to Jefferson for spiritual or theological comfort, in spiet of his rich treasure of political wisdom.

Smylie, James H. “Jefferson’s Statute for Religious Freedom: The Hanover Presbytery Memorials, 1776-1786.” American Presbyterians (formerly Journal of Presbyterian History) 63 (1985): 355-73.

Steiner, Franklin. The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: An account of the religious beliefs, and lack of such beliefs, of our chief executives, and a chronicle of the ... and controversies of their administrations. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1936. 190 pp. Rpt. as Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: From Washington to F.D.R. Amherst, NY Prometheus Books, 1995. 190 pp. An abridged text has been published at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/franklin_steiner/presidents.html.

Strout, Cushing “Jefferson’s Statute and the Glorious First.” Proteus 4, 2 (1987): 5-12.

Thompson, Peggy. “Jefferson Trimmed the Bible to His Taste.” Smithsonian 14 (September, 1983): 139-45, 47-48.

Wills, Garry. “Jefferson: The Uses of Religion” and “Jefferson: The Protection of Religion.” In Under God: Religion and American Politics. New York: Simon & Schuster,1990, pp. 354-72.

Zagarri, Rosemarie. “Founding Intentions: Jefferson & Madison on School Prayer.” New Republic 193 (September 9, 1985): 10-11.

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James Madison (1751-1836)

James Madison, the fourth president of the United States, was born on March 5, 1751, at Port Conway, Virginia. He later attended the Presbyterian-sponsored College of New Jersey (now Princeton University). He helped write the Virginia Constitution of 1776, later served in the Continental Congress, and was active in the Constitutional Convention. He is best known as the co-author of the Federalist essays, still basic documents on the United States government. He died on June 28, 1836, the last of the founding fathers to pass away.

James Madison, an Episcopalian, attended St. John’s Episcopal Church in Washington during his years as President, though theologically, he was a Deist. He often shifted his position on different issues relative to freedom of religion and separation of church and state as he encountered variant political realities. Often cited is the so-called “Detached Memorandum” in which he argued against hiring chaplains for the congress. This brief document is posted at http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/amendI_religions64.html.

For a more complete bibliography on Madison, see “Bibliography—James Madison (1751 - 1836)” posted at the site of the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia: http://millercenter.org/scripps/onlinereference/bibliographies/madison.

Primary Sources

Madison, James. The Complete Madison: His Basic Writings. Ed. by Saul K. Padover. New York: Harper and brothers, 1953.

-----. The Forging of American Federalism: Selected Writings of James Madison. Ed by Saul K. Padover. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1965. 361 pp.

-----. James Madison on Religious Liberty. Ed. by Robert S. Alley. Amherst, N.Y: Prometheus Books, 1985).

-----. The Papers of James Madison. Ed. by William T. Hutchinson et al. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1962-.

-----. The Political Writings of James Monroe. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2002. 863 pp.

-----. The Writings of James Madison. Ed. by Guillard Hunt. 9 vols. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1900-1910.

Smith, James Morton, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776-1826. 3 vols. New York: Norton, 1995.

Secondary Sources

Adair, Douglass, ed. “Madison’s Autobiography.” William and Mary Quarterly 2 (1945).

Adams, John Quincy. The Lives of James Madison and James Monroe. Boston: Phillips, Sampson & Co., 1850.

Alley, Robert S. James Madison on Religious Liberty. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.

Brant, Irving. James Madison. 6 vols. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1941-1961.

Ketcham, Ralph L. James Madison: A Biography. New York: Macmillan, 1971.

Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 225 pp.

Muñoz, Vincent Phillip. “James Madison’s Principle of Religious Liberty.” American Political Science Review 97, 1 (2003): 17–32.

Peterson, Merrill D. ed. James Madison: A Biography in His Own Words. New York: Newsweek, 1974.

Rutland, Robert A., ed. James Madison and the American Nation, 1751–1836: An Encyclopedia. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

Scarberry, Mark S. “John Leland and James Madison: Religious Influence on the Ratification of the Constitution and on the Proposal of the Bill of Rights.” Penn State Law Review 113, 3 (April 2009): 733-650.

Steiner, Franklin. The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: An account of the religious beliefs, and lack of such beliefs, of our chief executives, and a chronicle of the ... and controversies of their administrations. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1936. 190 pp. Rpt. as Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: From Washington to F.D.R. Amherst, NY Prometheus Books, 1995. 190 pp. An abridged text has been published at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/franklin_steiner/presidents.html.

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James Monroe (1758-1831)

James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States, was born on April 28, 1758 and grew up in Virginia. He attended the College of William and Mary, but dropped out to fight in the American revolution with the Continental Army. He later studied law with Thomas Jefferson. While president, in 1823, he articulated what has become known as the Monroe Doctrine, still a major building block of American foreign policy, which set American opposition European expansion and intervention throughout the Western Hemisphere. In 1831, he became the third of the early US presidents to die on July 4.

Little has been written by or about Monroe’s religious views. He appears to have been a Deist, and like many of his Deist colleagues was both a Freemason and a member of the Episcopal Church, though never confirmed and not particularly active. Monroe reportedly burned much of his family correspondence in which references to religion might have been made. Correspondence that survived included no comments about spiritual matters. His public statements and speeches are remarkably silent about religious matters, and lack citations of the Bible and any references to Jesus Christ. References to God are limited to a few stock phrases common to Deists. David L. Holmes suggests that “. . . James Monroe may have been the most skeptical of the early presidents of the United States.”

This bibliography of Monroe draws from the “Biographical Directory of the United States Congress” posted at http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/bibdisplay.pl?index=M000858. Also see Harry Ammon’s James Monroe: A Bibliography (Westport, CT: Meckler, 1991).

Primary Sources

Monroe, James. The People, the Sovereigns: Being a Comparison of the Government of the United States with Those of the Republics which Have Existed Before, with the Causes of Their Decadence and Fall. Ed. by Samuel L. Gouverneur. 1867. Reprint. Cumberland, VA: James River Press, 1987.

Secondary Sources

Adams, John Quincy. The Lives of James Madison and James Monroe. Boston: Phillips, Sampson & Co., 1850.

Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971.

Berkeley, Edmund, and Dorothy Smith Berkeley. “ ‘The Piece Left Behind’: Monroe’s Authorship of a Political Pamphlet Revealed.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 75 (April 1967): 174-80.

Brown, Stuart Gerry, ed. The Autobiography of James Monroe. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1959.

Cresson, W.P. James Monroe. 1946. Reprint. Norwalk, CT: Easton Press, 1986.

Cronin, John W., and W. Harvey Wise, Jr., eds. A Bibliography of James Madison and James Monroe. Washington: Riverford Publishing Co., 1935.

Dickson, Charles Ellis. “James Monroe’s Defense of Kentucky’s Interests in the Confederation Congress: An Example of Early North/South Party Alignment.” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 74 (October 1976): 261-80.

-----. “Politics in a New Nation: The Early Career of James Monroe.” Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1971.

Elliot, Ian, ed. James Monroe, 1758-1831; Chronology, Documents, Bibliographical Aids. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1969.

Garrison, Curtis Wiswell, and David Lawrence Thomas, eds. James Monroe Papers in Virginia Repositories. University of Virginia Library, Charlottesville, 1969. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1989. Microfilm. 13 reels and guide.

Gilman, Daniel Coit. James Monroe. 1898. Reprint, with new introduction by Robert Dawidoff. New York: Chelsea House, 1983.

Hamilton, Stanislaus Murray. The Writings of James Monroe. 7 vols. 1898-1903. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1969.

Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 225 pp.

-----. “The Religion of James Monroe.” Virginia Quarterly Review (October 2003). Posted at http://www.vqronline.org/articles/2003/autumn/holmes-religion-james-monroe/.

Morgan, George. The Life of James Monroe. 1921. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1969.

Schoenherr, Steven E., and Iris H.W. Engelstrand. “James Monroe, Friend of the West.” Journal of the West 31 (July 1992): 20-26.

Steiner, Franklin. The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: An account of the religious beliefs, and lack of such beliefs, of our chief executives, and a chronicle of the ... and controversies of their administrations. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1936. 190 pp. Rpt. as Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents: From Washington to F.D.R. Amherst, NY Prometheus Books, 1995. 190 pp. An abridged text has been published at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/franklin_steiner/presidents.html.

Styron, Arthur. The Last of the Cocked Hats: James Monroe and the Virginia Dynasty. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1945.

Weston, Elizabeth. The Early Career of James Monroe. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, M.A. Thesis, 1942.

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Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

Thomas Paine, possibly the most important and oft-quoted of the eighteenth-century American Deists, was born January 29, 1737 in Thetford, Norfolk, England. His religious dissent began with his Quaker father. Paine met Benjamin Franklin in London, and afterwards migrated to the American colonies (1774). He emerged as an advocate American independence, and won the hearts of many colonists to the cause with his pamphlet “Common Sense,” which appeared in 1776. As the war began, he wrote a series of pamphlets under the collective title “The American Crisis” that inspired many especially during the years that the struggle appeared all but lost.

After the war, in 1791, Paine published Rights of Man, in support of the French Revolution, which the British government saw as seditious. Paine already in Paris, nevertheless was jailed for opposing the execution of King Louis XVI. While in prison, he wrote the “Age of Reason,” in which he attacked orthodox religion and stated his own Deistic views. He wrote a second volume when he got out of jail.

Returning to the United Strates, he found some support from then President Thomas Jefferson, but died in relative obscurity, denounced by many as an atheist and infidel, common labels applied to deists by orthodox Christian believers. He died in New York City on June 8, 1809.

Because of the controversy surrounding his religious views, Paine’s role in the Revolution was often downplayed, though he was never fully forgotten and has always had his advocates. Numerous edition of his writings have appeared during the last generation. Possibly the most succinct statement of Paine’s religious views is found in his essay “Of the Religion of Deism Compared with the Christian Religion,” a copy of which is posted at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/paine-deism.html.

Primary Sources

Paine, Thomas. The American Crisis, numbers 1-4 (Philadelphia: Printed and sold by Styner and Cist, 1776-1777); number 5 (Lancaster: Printed by John Dunlap, 1778); numbers 6-7 (Philadelphia: Printed by John Dunlap, 1778); numbers 8-9 (Philadelphia: Printed by John Dunlap?, 1780); The Crisis Extraordinary (Philadelphia: Sold by William Harris, 1780); The American Crisis, numbers 10-12 (Philadelphia: Printed by John Dunlap?, 1782); number 13 (Philadelphia, 1783); A Supernumerary Crisis (Philadelphia, 1783); A Supernumerary Crisis [number 2] (New York, 1783); numbers 2-9, 11, and The Crisis Extraordinary republished in The American Crisis, and a Letter to Sir Guy Carleton…(London: Printed and sold by D. I. Eaton, 1796?).

------. The Age of Reason: Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology. Paris: Printed by Barrois, 1794. Rpt.: London: Sold by D. I. Eaton, 1794. Rpt.: New York: Printed by T. and J. Swords for J. Fellows, 1794.

-----. The Age of Reason: Part the Second. Being an Investigation of True and of Fabulous Theology. Paris: Printed for the author, 1795. Rpt.: London: Printed for H. D. Symods, 1795. Rpt.: Philadelphia: Printed by Benjamin Franklin Bache for the author, 1795.

-----. The Age of Reason, the Complete Edition. Introduction by Bob Johnson. San Diego: Truth Seeker, 2009. 270 pp.

------. Collected Writings: Common Sense; The Crisis; Rights of Man; The Age of Reason; Pamphlets; Articles; and Letters. Ed. by Eric Foner. New York: Library of America, 1995, 905 pp.

-----. Common Sense: Addressed to the Inhabitants of America… Philadelphia: Printed and sold by R. Bell, 1776. Rev. ed.: Philadelphia: Printed by William Bradford, 1776.

-----. The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine. Collected and edited by Philip S. Foner, 2 vols. New York: Citadel Press, 1945.

-----. Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke’s Attack on the French Revolution. London: Printed for J. Johnson, 1791. Rpt.: Baltimore: Printed and sold by David Graham, 1791.

-----. Rights of Man: Part the Second. London: Printed by J. S. Jordan, 1792. Rpt.: New York: Printed by Hugh Gaine, 1792.

Secondary Sources

Aldridge, Alfred Owen. Man of Reason: The Life of Thomas Paine. Philadelphia: Lippencott, 1959.

-----. Thomas Paine’s American Ideology. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1984.

Ayer, A. J. Thomas Paine. New York: Atheneum, 1988.

Bindman, David. “‘My own mind is my own church’: Blake, Paine and the French Revolution.” In Alison Yarrington and Kelvin Everest, eds. Reflections of Revolution: Images of Romanticism. London: Routledge, 1993.

Blakemore, Steven. Crisis in Representation: Thomas Paine, Mary Wollstonecraft, Helen Maria Williams, and the Rewriting of the French Revolution. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.

Claeys, Gregory. Thomas Paine: social and political thought. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989.

Collins, Paul. The Trouble with Tom: The Strange Afterlife and Times of Thomas Paine. New York and London: Bloomsbury, 2005. 275 pp.

Davidson, Edward h., and William J. Scheick. Paine, Scripture, and Authority: The Age of Reason as Religious and Political Ideal. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press 1994.

Dennis, Donald Dean. The Deistic Trio: A Study in the Central Religious Beliefs of Ethan Allen, Thomas Paine, and Elihu Palmer. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah, Ph.D. dissertation.

Dyck, Ian. ed. Citizen of the World: Essays on Thomas Paine. NY: St. Martin’s, 1988.

Fruchtman, Jack, Jr. Thomas Paine and the Religion of Nature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

-----. Thomas Paine: Apostles of Freedom. New York: Fall Walls Eight Windows, 1994.

The Genuine Trial of Thomas Paine, for a Libel Contained in the Second Part of Rights of Man; at Guildhall, London, Dec. 18, 1792, before Lord Kenyon and a Special Jury: together with the Speeches at Large of the Attorney-General and Mr. Erskine, and Authentic Copies of Mr. Paine’s Letters to the Attorney-General and Others, on the Subject of the Prosecution. Taken in Short-hand by E. Hodgson. London, Printed for J.S. Jordan, 1792. 109p. 2d ed., corrected: 1793. 143p.

Gimbel, Richard. “The First Appearance of Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason.Yale University Library Gazette 31 (1957): 87–89.

Hawke, David Freeman. Paine. New York: Harper & Row. 1974. 500 pp.

Ingersoll, Robert G. Vindication of Thomas Paine. Boston: J. P. Mendum, 1877.

Kaye, Harvey J. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. New York: Hill and Wang 2005. 326 pp.

King, Ronald F., and Elsie Berler, eds. Thomas Paine: Common Sense for the Modern Era. San Diego: San Diego State University Press, 2007. 318 pp.
Excellent set of papers and proceeding from a conference on Paine held at San Diego State University.

Kramer, Lloyd S., ed. Paine and Jefferson on Liberty. New York: Ungar, 1988, 144 pp

Lewis, Joseph. Thomas Paine: The Author of the Declaration of Independence. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1947.

Philp, Mark. Paine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Putz, Manfred, and Jon K Adams. A Concordance to Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and The American Crisis. New York: Garland Publishers, 1989.

Royle, Edward, ed. The Infidel Tradition from Paine to Bradlaugh. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1976.

Stein, Gordon. “Thomas Paine and the Age of Reason.” American Rationalist 25, 1 (May/June 1980).

Vincent, Bernard. The Transatlantic Republican: Thomas Paine and the Age of Revolutions. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi B.V. 2005. 186 pp.

Watson, Richard. An Apology for the Bible, in a Series of Letters, addressed to Thomas Paine. Cambridge, Brown and Hilliard, 1828. Rpt.: Philadelphia: James Carey, 1979. Watson was a prominent Methodist scholar.

Weaver, Jeanne Moore. “Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson: Two American Philosophes Compared (Volumes I and II).” Ph. D. diss., Auburn University, 1988.

Williamson, Audrey. Thomas Paine: His Life, Work and Times. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1973.

Wilson, Jerome D., and William F. Ricketson. Thomas Paine. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1989.

Woll, Walter. Thomas Paine: Motives for Rebellion. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1992.

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Elihu Palmer (1764-1806)

Elihu Palmer, an early advocate of Deism through the revolutionary Era, was born in Canterbury, Connecticut, in 1764. He attended Dartmouth College after which he became a minister at the first Presbyterian church of Nerwtown (New York). He left after he came to reject both the particular Calvinist beliefs and more generally the essentials of Christian orthodoxy. He became first a Universalists and then a Deist. He initially settled in Philadelphia as a lawyer but caught yellow fever which left him blind. He later settled in New York City, where in 1796 he founded the Deistical Society of New York, the first such religious organization in the United States.

He spoke often and published much, though principlally remembered for his The Principles of Nature, or A Development of the Moral Causes of Happiness and Misery among the Human Species. He died in 1806.

Primary Sources

Palmer, Elihu. Posthumous Pieces by Elihu Palmer, Being Three Chapters of an Unfinished Work Intended to Have Been Entitled “The Political World.” . . . London, R. Carlile, 1824. 30p.

-----. Principles of Nature; or, A Development of the Moral Causes of Happiness and Misery Among the Human Species. 1819. Posted at http://www.deism.com/principlesofnature.htm.

-----. Prospect, or View of the Moral World. New York, 1804.

-----. A Report of the trial of James Watson: for having sold a copy of Palmer’s Principles of nature, at the shop of Mr. Carlile, 201, Strand, tried at the Clerkenwell sessions house, at the adjourned sessions for the county of Middlesex, on the 24th day of April, 1823, before Mr. Const, as chairman, and a common jury. London : R. Carlile, 1825.

Secondary Sources

Dennis, Donald Dean. The Deistic Trio: A Study in the Central Religious Beliefs of Ethan Allen, Thomas Paine, and Elihu Palmer. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah, Ph.D. dissertation.

French, R. S. “Elihu Palmer, Radical deist, Radical republican: A reconsideration of American Freethought.” Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture. Vol. 8. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979.

Walters, Kerry S. Elihu Palmer’s Principles of Nature. Wolfeboro: Longwood Academic, 1990.

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George Washington (1732-1799)

Among the founding fathers, George Washington, the leader of the Continental Army and then the first president of the United States, remains among the hardest to pinpoint religiously. He was a life-long Episcopalian, Never confirmed, he attended church with his more devout wife, Martha, but unlike her did not partake of the sacraments. He was also a Freemason. There is little in his papers to suggest that he was anything other than a Deist Episcopalian and little to suggest that he paid much attention to what might be considered the essential and peculiar beliefs of orthodox Christianity.

Washington made occasional mention of God in his correspondence and his public papers, but did so in an abstract and distant manner, speaking, for example of the “Supreme Author of all Good,” or the “Father of Mercies.” He does not speak of Jesus or make personal references to the deity. His utterances appear to have been made to reflect a general high regard of all the various religious divisions of his own day and the needs to unite people of differing persuasions of the needs of loyalty to the young nation.

One popular bit of Washington lore concerns his being overseen while in private prayer for the troops at Valley Forge. This incident has been called into question by scholars and remains a most disputed point. Largely refuted is the rumor that Washington was baptized by Baptist minister John Gano has also been thoroughly refuted.

From the vast literature on Washington, items have been selected for this bibliography that highlight reflections on Washington’s religious views and his relations with a spectrum of religious bodies.

Primary Sources

Washington, George. The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799. Ed. by John C. Fitzpatrick. 39 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1931-1944.

Secondary Sources

Andrist, Ralph K., ed. George Washington: A Biography in His Own Words. 2 vols. New York: 1972.

Barnes, Lemuel C. “George Washington and Freedom of Conscience.” Journal of Religion XII (October, 1932): 493-525.

 -----. “The John Gano Evidence of George Washington’s Religion.” Bulletin of William Jewell College Series No. 24, 1 (September 15, 1926).

Beatty, Albert R. “Washington’s Christmases.” National Republic 20 (January, 1933): 3-5, 26.

 -----. “Was Washington Religious?” National Republic 20 (February and March 1933): 3-5, 28; 18-19, 29.

Bellamy, Francis Rufus. The Private Life of George Washington. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1951.

Boller, Paul F., Jr. George Washington and Religion, Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University Press, 1963.

-----. “George Washington and the Methodists.” Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 27 (June, 1959): 165-86.

-----. “George Washington and the Presbyterians.” Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 39 (September, 1961): 129-49.

Fitzpatrick, John C. “George Washington and Religion.” Catholic Historical Review 15 (April 1929): 23-42. Rpt. in Washington as a Religious Man. Washington DC: Geo Washington Bicentennial Commission, 1931.

Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. George Washington: A Biographical Companion. Santa Barbra, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2002. 436 pp.

-----. The Ways of Providence: Religion and George Washington. Buena Vista and Charlottesville, VA: Mariner Publishing. 2005.

Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 225 pp.

Jones, Gilbert Starling. “Prayer of Valley Forge May Be Legend or Tradition or a Fact, Yet It Remains Symbol of Faith.” The Picket Post, (Valley Forge Historical Society) 9 (April, 1945). Posted at http://www.ushistory.org/valleyforge/washington/prayer.html.

Lewis, Abraham. “Correspondence between Washington and Jewish Citizens.” Proceedings of the American Jewish Historical Society III (1894): 87-96.

Lillback, Peter A. with Jerry Newcombe. George Washington’s Sacred Fire. West Conshohocken, PA: Providence Forum Press, 2006. 1208 pp.

M’Guire, Edward Charles. The Religious Opinions and Character of Washington. Harper & Brothers, 1836. 220 pp. Posted at http://www.archive.org/details/religiousopinion02mgui.

Muñoz, Vincent Phillip. “George Washington on Religious Liberty.” Review of Politics 65, 1 (2003): 11-33.

Nordham,George Washington. George Washington’s Religious Faith. Chicago: Adams Press, 1986. 62 pp.

Novak, Michael, and Novak, Jana. Washington’s God: Religion, Liberty, and the Father of Our Country. New York: Basic Books, 2006. 282 pp.
The Novaks attack the notions that Washington was a deist, that his religion was a marginal Christianity that lacked any depth of conviction; and that he merely affirmed an impersonal divine force that he spoke of as “Providence.”

Padover, Saul K., ed. The Washington Papers. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1955.

Washington as a Religious Man. Washington DC: George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 1931.
Includes two works: (1) “George Washington and Religion” by John C, Fitzpatrick and (2) “Washington’s Own Words on Religion” compiled by Albert Bushnell Hall.

Wills, George. Cincinnatus: George Washington & the Enlightenment. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1984.

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Unitarianism and Universalism

Both Unitarianism, a monotheistic Christian perspective that affirms the existence of one deity and by implication denies the Christian doctrine of the Trinity (three persons in a single Godhead) and the deity of Jesus Christ, and Universalism, a perspective that affirms that ultimately all will be saved and denies the doctrine of an eternal punishment of those who die in a state of sin, emerged in eighteenth century North America to challenge the more dominant orthodox and traditional Anglican and Calvinist theological on view. Both perspective led to the formation of competing churches with found their greatest support in New England. These two movements emerged side-by-side but existed as two distinct organizations until their merger in the 1960s.

Unitarianism had a strong affinity with Deism, both affirming a single deity in place of the Christian Trinity, while at the same time coming out of different contexts and producing different results. Deism developed in the context of the Church of England and offered a much more skeptical outlook. There was greater emphasis on what it denied than what it affirmed and adherents only rarely attempted to give their beliefs any organizational expression. Unitarianism, which slowly emerged and then thrived in the context of New England Congregationalism, was an attempt to build what was seen as a more believable Christian theology, that still assigned some authority to the Christian Bible and ascribed a central role to the figure of Jesus. It also led to the formation of church congregations.

Unitarian belief arrived in America from England, one of the primary exponents being Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), who settled in Pennsylvania in 1794 and soon afterwards founded the first Unitarian church in the New World in Philadelphia. Unitarian belief subsequently spread northward among the Congregationalists and in 1807 asserted its presence at Harvard with the appointment of three liberal professors to the faculty. The movement found a champion in the person of William Ellery Channing (1780-1842).

New Englanders debated Unitarianism in each of their congregations through the first decades of the nineteenth century. There being but one congregation per parish, when a majority accepted the Unitarian perspective the parish church became Unitarian. In such cases, the orthodox Congregationalist minority then faced the reality of having lost their church and being forced to start over. King’s Chapel, the single Anglican Church in Boston, somewhat disconnected from the larger Episcopal Church, also voted to become Unitarian. An organization of Unitarian congregations, the American Unitarian Association was established in 1825, the same day that the British Unitarians formed the British and Foreign Unitarian Association.

The Universalist Church in America is generally traced to John Murray (1741-1815), who became a Universalist in England and subsequently arrived in the colonies in 1770. The movement grew in stages over the next twenty years but a significant point was reached with the meeting of the first general Universalist Convention convened at Oxford, Massachusetts, in September of 1785. The Universalist General Convention (later the Universalist Church of America) was formed in 1866. It merged with the American Unitarian Association to form the Unitarian Universalist Association in 1961. By this time both the Universalists and Unitarians had moved further away from the Christian contexts that had given them birth and the debates that had energized them in the nineteenth century and moved more into alignment with the larger community of unbelief.

Sources

Ahlstrom, Sydney E. and Jonathan S. Carey, eds. An American Reformation: A Documentary History of Unitarian Christianity. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1985. 493 pp.

Allen, J. H., and R. Eddy. A History of the Unitarians and the Universalists in the United States. “American Church History” series, Vol. X, 1894.

Broadway, J. William. “Universalist Participation in the Spiritualist Movement of the Nineteenth Century.” Proceedings of the Unitarian Universalist Historical Society 19, Pt. 1 (1981): 1-15.

Bumbaugh, David E. Unitarian Universalism: A Narrative History. Chicago: Meadville Lombard Theological Seminary, 2001. 226 pp.

Cassara, Ernest. Universalism in America: A Documentary History. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971. 290 pp.

Cheetham, H. H. Unitarianism and Universalism: An Illustrated History. Boston: Beacon Press, 1962.

Chestnut, Paul Iver. The Universalist Movement in America. Durham, NC: Duke University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1974.

Conway, Moncure Daniel. The Life of Thomas Paine. 2 vols. New Work: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1892.

-----. Autobiography: Memoirs and Experiences. 2 vols. New York: Cassell and Company, 1892.

Cooke, George Willis. Unitarianism in America: a History of its Origin and Development Boston, 1902.

Darrow, Clarence. The Story of My Life. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1932.

Davies, A. Powell. America’s Real Religion. Washington, DC: All Soul’s Church, 1949. 87 pp.

Eddy, Richard. Universalism in American History. 2 vols., Boston: Universalist Publishing House, 1884, 1886.

Eliot, Samuel A. Heralds of a Liberal Faith. 4 vols. Boston: American Unitarian Association, 1910; Rpt.: Boston: Beacon Press, 1952.

Foulds, Louise. Universalists in Ontario. Toronto: 1980.

Fritchman, Stephen H. Men of Liberty; Ten Unitarian Pioneers. New York: Kennikat Press, 1968.

Geffen, Elizebeth M. Philadelphia Unitarianism 1796-1861. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1961.

Hewett, Philip. Unitarians in Canada: How the Unitarians Have Exerted a Powerful Influence on Canadian Life for Over 150 Years. Don Mills, ON: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1978. 390 pp.

Hornback, Kimberly. Women in the Nineteenth Century Unitarian Controversy. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University, M.A. Thesis, 2007. 62 pp.

Howe, Daniel Walker. The Unitarian Conscience: Harvard moral Philosophy, 1805-1861. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Bruce Kuklick, ed. The Unitarian Controversy, 1819-1823. 2 vols. New York: Garland Publishing, 1987.

Macaulay, John Allen. Truth Over Fanaticism: The Independence of Southern Unitarianism, 1970-1860. Columbia: University of South Carolina, Ph.D. dissertation, 1998.

MacPherson, David H. “The Decline of Universalism, 1900-1950: I. The Massachusetts Universalist Convention,” Journal of the Universalist Historical Society 6 (1966): 4-24.

Marini, Stephen A. Radical Sects of Revolutionary New England, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982. 220 pp.

Miller, Russell E. The Larger Hope. 2 vols. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Association, 1979–1985.

Robinson, David. The Unitarians and the Universalists. Denominations in America, vol. 1. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985. 368 pp.

Robinson, Elmo Arnold, “Universalism in Indiana,” Indiana Magazine of History, XI11 (March, 1917).

Schafersman, Steven D. “The History and Philosophy of Humanism and Its Role in Unitarian Universalism.” An Address to the Unitarian Universalist Congregation of Butler County, Oxford, Ohio, September 24, 1995. Posted at http://freeinquiry.com/humanism-uu.html.

Scott, Clinton Lee. The Universalist Church of America: A Short History. Boston: Universalist Historical Society, 1957. 124 pp.

Seaburg, Alan. “Recent Scholarship in American Universalism: A Bibliographical Essay.” Church History 41.4 (1972: December): 513-523.

-----. “The Universalist Collection at Andover-Harvard.” Harvard Library Bulletin 28 (1980): 443-455.

Tapp, Robert B. Religion among the Unitarian Universalists. New York: Seminar Press, 1973.

-----. “The Unitarian Universalists: Style and Substance.” Christian Century 96 (1979): 274-279.

Unitarians in Canada Today: A Decade of Growth. Toronto: Canadian Unitarian Council, 1963.

Watts, Heather, ed. Guide to the Records of the Canadian Unitarian and Universalist Churches, Fellowships and Other Related Organizations. [Halifax, Nova Scotia?]: Archives Committee, 1990. 301 pp.

Wilbur, Earl Morse. A History of Unitarianism. Volume 2: In Transylvania, England, and America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1952.

Williams, George Huntston. American Universalism: A Bicentennial Historical Essay. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971. 94 pp.

Wintersteen, Prescott B. Christology in American Unitarianism. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Christian Fellowship, 1977.

Wright, Conrad Edick. “American Unitarian and Universalist Historical Scholarship: A Bibliography of Items Published 1946-1995.” Journal of Unitarian Universalist History 28, Pt. 1(2001).

-----. The Beginnings of Unitarianism in America. Boston: Starr King Press, 1955. 305 pp.

-----. The Liberal Christians: Essays on American Unitarian History. Boston: Beacon Press, 1970. 147 pp.

-----. Three Prophets of Religious Liberalism: Channing, Emerson, Parker. Boston: Beacon Press, 1961. 152 pp.

-----. The Unitarian Controversy: Essays on American Unitarian History, Boston: Skinner House Books, 1994.

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Benjamin Rush (1745-1813)

Benjamin Rush, the most prominent physician in the American colonies as the Revolutionary Era began and a notable Universalist, was born December 24, 1745, near Philadelphia. After studying medicine in Europe, he set up practice in Philadelphia. He later was a delegate to the Continental Congress and an enthusiastic signer of the Declaration of Independence. Though early a member of a Presbyterian church, he withdrew from formal religious connections after espousing universal salvation and redirected his energies to a variety of social reform movements, most notably the abolition of slavery. He was a good friend with Joseph Priestly, after the latter’s move to America in the 1790s, and John Adams. He died on April 19, 1813.

Rush wrote voluminously, and had received attention from various perspectives due to his broad interests and activities. For a more complete survey of the literature, see Claire G. Fox, Gordon Miller, and Jacquelyn Miller Benjamin Rush, M.D: A Bibliographic Guide (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996),

Primary Sources

Adams, John, and Benjamin Rush. The Spur of Fame: Dialogues of John Adams and Benjamin Rush, 1805-1813. Edited by John A. Schutz and Douglass Adair. 1966. Reprint, Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Fund, 2000

Rush, Benjamin. An Account of the Manners of the German Inhabitants of Pennsylvania (1789). 1910. Reprint, With a new introduction by William T. Parsons. Collegeville: Institute on Pennsylvania Dutch Studies, 1974.

-----. An Account of the State of the Body and Mind in Old Age. Edinburgh: N.p., 1807.

-----. An Address on the Slavery of the Negroes in America. Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

-----. An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America, Upon Slave-keeping. Philadelphia: Printed by J. Dunlap, 1773.

-----. The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush; His Travels Through Life Together with his Commonplace Book for 1789-1813. 1948. Rpt.: Ed by George W. Corner. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970.

-----. Benjamin Rush’s Lectures on the Mind. Edited, annotated, and introduced by Eric T. Carlson, Jeffrey L. Wollock, and Patricia S. Noel. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1981.

-----. Considerations on the Injustice and Impolicy of Punishing Murder by Death: Extracted from the American Museum: With Additions. Philadelphia: From the Press of Mathew Carey, May 4, 1792.

-----. Considerations Upon the Present Test-law of Pennsylvania: Addressed to the Legislature and Freemen of the State. Philadelphia: Printed by Hall and Sellers, [1784].

-----. An Enquiry into the Effects of Spiritous Liquors Upon the Human Body, and Their Influence Upon the Happiness of Society. 1787. Reprint, Philadelphia: Printed by Thomas Bradford, [1790].

-----. Essays: Literary, Moral, and Philosophical. 1806. Reprint, edited with an introductory essay by Michael Meranze, Schenactady, N.Y.: Union College Press, 1988.

-----. Experiments and Observations on the Mineral Waters of Philadelphia, Abington, and Bristol, in the Province of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Printed by James Humphreys, junior, 1773.

-----. Letters. Edited by L. H. Butterfield. [Princeton]: Published for the American Philosophical Society by Princeton University Press, 1951.

-----. Sixteen Introductory Lectures. With an introduction by Lawrence A. May. 1811. Reprint, Oceanside, N.Y.: Dabor Science Publications, 1977.

-----. Two Essays on the Mind: An Enquiry into the Influence of Physical Causes Upon the Moral Faculty, and On the influence of Physical Causes in Promoting an Increase of the Strength and Activity of the Intellectual Faculties of Man. Introduction by Eric T. Carlson. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1972.

-----. A Vindication of the Address, to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements, on the Slavery of the Negroes in America, In Answer to a Pamphlet Entitled, “Slavery not forbidden by Scripture; or, A defence of the West-India planters from the aspersions thrown out against them by the author of the Address.” By a Pennsylvanian. Philadelphia: J. Dunlap, 1773.

Secondary Sources

Barton, David. Benjamin Rush: Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Aledo, TX: Wall Builder Press, 1999.

Binger, Carl Alfred Lanning. Revolutionary Doctor: Benjamin Rush, 1746-1813. New York: Norton, 1966.

Blinderman, Abraham. Three Early Champions of Education: Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Rush, and Noah Webster. Bloomington, IN.: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1976.

Brodsky, Alyn. Benjamin Rush: Patriot and Physician. New York: Truman Talley, 2004.

D’Elia, Donald J. Benjamin Rush, Philosopher of the American Revolution. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1974.

Douty, Esther Morris. Patriot Doctor, the Story of Benjamin Rush. New York: Messner, 1959.

Goodman, Nathan G. Benjamin Rush, Physician and Citizen, 1746-1813. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934.

Hawke, David F. Benjamin Rush, Revolutionary Gadfly. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1971.

Neilson, Winthrop. Verdict for the Doctor; The Case of Benjamin Rush. New York: Hastings House, 1958.

Riedman, Sarah Regal and Clarence C. Green. Benjamin Rush: Physician, Patriot, Founding Father. London, New York: Abelard-Schuman, 1964.

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William Ellery Channing

William Ellery Channing, who emerged as the champion of Unitarianism in the 1820s was born in Newport, Rhode Island on April 7, 1780. He studied for the Congregationalist ministry and in 1803 became the minister of the Federal Street Church in Boston. In 1815 he was among those attacked by fellow Congregationalist minister Jedidiah Morse (1761-1826)in The Panoplist, a Christian periodical, as an example of the liberal Boston Unitarian clergy. Channing responded on several occasions, most notably in 1819 on the occasion of the ordination of Jared Sparks when he delivered the sermon “Unitarian Christianity.” He remained the minister at Federal Street until his death on Oct. 2, 1842,

A more extensive bibliography on Channing can be found in David Robinson, Bibliography of Edward Channing (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1932): 20 pp.

Primary Sources

Channing, William Ellery. The Liberal Gospel, as set forth in the writings of William Ellery Channing. Ed. by Charles Lyttle. Boston Beacon Press, 1925.

-----. Memoir of William Ellery Channing, with Extracts from His Correspondence and Manuscripts. Ed. by William Henry Channing. Boston: Wm. Crosby & H. P. Nichols, 1848. 3 vols.

-----. The Perfect Life in Twelve Discourses. Ed. by William Henry Channing. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1873.

-----. Unitarian Christianity & Other Essays. Ed. by Irving H. Bartlett. Bobbs-Merrill, 1957. 121 pp.

-----. William Ellery Channing: Selected Writings. Ed. by David Robinson. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press 1985. 310 pp.

-----. The Works of William Ellery Channing D.D. Glasgow: Richard Griffin and Co, 1840. 559pp.

-----. The Works. Third complete edition, with an introduction. 6. vols. Boston, Munroe 1843.

-----. Works of William E. Channing, D. D. With an Introduction New and Complete Edition Rearranged. Boston: American Unitarian Association, 1885. 931pp.

Secondary Sources

Brown, Arthur W. Always Young for Liberty: A Biography of WEC. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1956.

-----. William Ellery Channing. New York: Twayne, 1962.

Delbanco, Andrew Henry. William Ellery Channing: An Essay on the Liberal Spirit in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1980.

Han, John J. “William Ellery Channing (1780-1842).” in Knight, Denise D. ed. Writers of the American Renaissance: An A-to-Z Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2003.

Lyttle, David. Studies in Religion in Early American Literature: Edwards, Poe, Channing, Emerson, Some Minor Transcendentalists, Hawthorne, and Thoreau. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1983.

Mendelsohn, Jack. Channing, the Reluctant Radical: a Biography. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971.

Patterson, Robert L. The Philosophy of William Ellery Channing. New York: Bookman, 1952.

Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer. Reminiscences of Rev. Wm. Ellery Channing, D. D. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1880. 

Robinson, David. “William Ellery Channing.” In Wesley T. Mott, ed. The American Renaissance in New England. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2001. 533 pp.

Toulouse, Teresa. The Art of Prophesying: New England Sermons and the Shaping of Belief. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987.

Wagenknecht, Edward C. Ambassadors for Christ: Seven American Preachers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Wright, Conrad Edick. Three Prophets of Religious Liberalism: Channing, Emerson, Parker. Boston: Beacon Press, 1961. 152 pp.

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John Murray (1741-1815) and Judith Sargent Murray 1751 -1820

John Murray, from whose career Universalism in America is generally dated, was born in Alton, Hampshire, England, on December 10, 1741. He became a lay preacher in the Countess of Huntington’s Connexion, the Calvinist Methodist movement associated with George Whitefield. When it was discovered that he had become a Universalist, the church disfellowshipped him and his wife, and, broke and in debt, he left for America in 1770. He eventually settled in New Hampshire and founded a congregation (1774). After the Revolution, he would participate in the first Universalist convention held at Oxford, Massachusetts, in 1785 and eventually become the pastor of a Universalist congregation in Boston (1793).

Judith Sargent Murray, John’s wife, deserves mention in her own right. A writer/thinker, she wrote on subjects as varied as metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, and politics. She was an early North American feminist who published an essay on women’s equality in 1790. She was also responsible for much that her husband got into print, and after his death she compiled and edited his papers.

Murray wrote some of the early Universalist hymns, some of which were initially published in a reprint of British Universalist James Relly’s Christian Hymns, Poems and Sacred Songs, sacred to the praise of God, our Saviour (Portsmouth, NH: 1782) in which Murray added five of his own songs.

Primary Sources

Murray, John. Letters and Sketches of Sermons. 3 vols. Boston: the Author, 1812.

-----. Life of John Murray by Himself with Continuations by Judith Sargent Murray. Boston, 1816.

-----. Records of the Life of the Rev. John Murray, late Minister of the Reconciliation, and Senior Pastor of the Universalist congregated in Boston. Written by Himself. The Records Contain Anecdotes of the Writer’s Infancy, and are Extended to some Years after the Commencement of his Public Labours in America. To which is added a brief continuation to the closing scene. Boston: Bowen and Cushing, 1827

Murray, Judith Sargent. Selected Writings of Judith Sargent Murray. Ed. by Sharon M. Harris. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 320 pp.

Secondary Sources

Bressler, Ann Lee. The Universalist Movement in America, 1770-1880. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Cassara, Ernest. “The New World of John Murray.” In Charles A. Howe, ed., “Not Hell, But Hope”: The John Murray Distinguished Lectures, 1987-1991, Lanoka Harbor, NJ: The Murray Grove Association, 1991, pp. 9-29.

-----. “The New World of John Murray: A Character Study.” Unitarian Universalist Christian 46 (1991): 9-26.

Eddy, Richard. Universalism in American History. 2 vols., Boston: Universalist Publishing House, 1884, 1886.

Gibson, Gordon D. “The Rediscovery of Judith Sargent Murray.” In Charles A. Howe, ed., “Not Hell, But Hope”: The John Murray Distinguished Lectures, 1987-1991. Lanoka Harbor, N.J., The Murray Grove Association, 1991, pp. 69-90.

Hersey, Laura Smith. “By their works”: Biographical Sketches of Universalist Women. Association of Universalist Women, 1954.

Howe, Charles A. The Larger Faith. Boston: Skinner House, 1993.

-----. To Bring More Light and Understanding: The John Murray Distinguished Lectures. Volume II. Lanoka Harbor, NJ: The Murray Grove Association, 1995.

Hurd, Bonnie Smith. From Gloucester to Philadelphia in 1790: Observations, anecdotes, and thoughts from the 18th Century letters of Judith Sargent Murray. Cambridge, MA: Judith Sargent Murray Society, 1997. 338 pp.

Kykeman, Therese Boos. The Neglected Canon: Nine Women Philosophers First to Twentieth Century. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.

Marini, Stephen A. Radical Sects of Revolutionary New England. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Miller, Russell E. The Larger Hope: The First Century of Universalist Church in America. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Association, 1979.

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Hosea Ballou (1771-1852)

Hosea Ballou, for a half century a prominent Universalist theologian, was born on April 30, 1771, in Richmond, New Hampshire. His conversion to Unitarianism from a traditional Calvinist perspective occurred in stages, and along the way he was strongly influenced by his reading Ethan Allen’s Reason the Only Oracle of Man (1784). Ballow hsowed his creative thinking early with his Universalist discussion of salvation in A Treatise on Atonement (1805). Ballou began his ministerial career at Portsmouth, New Hampshire (1815), but spent most of his life as the pastor of Second Universalist Church in Boston (beginning in 1817).

He delivered thousands of sermons and authored a number of hymns and essays. He was the founder/editor of The Universalist Magazine (1819), superseded by The Universalist Expositor (1830), later renamed The Universalist Quarterly and General Review. Less known is his open correspondence with former Universalist minister turned Freethinker Abner Kneeland eventually published as a book, A Series of Letters in Defense of Divine Revelation. Ballou died in Boston on June 7, 1852.

Primary Sources

Ballou, Hosea. A Series of Lecture Sermons (1819).

-----. A Series of Letters, in defence of Divine Revelation; in reply to Rev. Abner Kneeland’s Serious Inquiry into the authenticity of the same. To which is added, a Religious Correspondence, between the Rev. Hosea Ballou, and the Rev. Dr. Joseph Buckminster, and Rev. Joseph Walton, Pastors of Congregational Churches in Portsmouth, N. H. Boston, 1820. Posted at http://www.wordsvalley.org/node/21829.

-----. A Treatise on Atonement. 1805. 4th ed.: Ed. by A. A. Miner. Boston Universalist Publishing House, 1882. Posted at http://www.danielharper.org/treatise.htm.

Secondary Sources

Adams, John Colemen. Hosea Ballou and the Gospel Renaissance of the Nineteenth Century. Boston, Universalist Publishing House. 1903. 28 pp.

Ballou, Maturin M. Biography of Rev. Hosea Ballou. Boston: Abel Tompkins, 1852. 404 pp.

Cassara, Ernest. Hosea Ballou: The Challenge to Orthodoxy. Boston: Universalist Historical Society/Beacon Press 1961, 226 pp.

Safford, Oscar F. Hosea Ballou: a Marvelous Life-story. Boston: Universalist Publishing House, 1889. 290pp

The Universalist Pulpit; Containing Sermons by Hosea Ballou, , E. H. Chapin, Thomas Whittemore. O. H. Tillotson, T. B. Thayer, John Murray, Lemuel Willis, AND A. A. Miner; With a fine likeness and biography of each. Third Edition: Boston: James m. Usher, 1856.

Whittemore, Thomas. Life of Rev. Hosea Ballou; With Accounts of His Writings, and Biographical Sketches of His Seniors and Contemporaries in the Universalist Ministry. 4 vols. Boston: James M. Usher, 1854-55.

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Theodore Parker (1810-1860)

Theodore Parker, a Unitarian preacher and religious and social reformer, is credited with pushing Unitarianism away from its specifically Christian roots and engendering an activist stance toward broader social participation. In the face of the loss of much of his large family to tuberculosis while still a young man, he rejected Orthodox Christianity and emerged as a convinced Unitarian. Too poor to attend college, he educated himself, even in the biblical languages, to the point that he was accepted at Harvard Divinity School even without a degree. Beginning his career as a traditional Unitarian, his study of the new findings of German biblical criticism convinced him that miracle stories were myths and the Bible not a revelation of Divine truth.

In the 1830s, Parker adhered to the new Transcedentalist movement, his leadership role confirmed in his controversial 1841 sermon, “A Discourse on the Transient and Permanent in Christianity.” As a result of the sermon, many of his Unitarian colleagues concluded that he was no longer a fellow Christian, even of the Unitarian kind. Unitarians debated his expulsion throughout the 1840s, and despite his rejection by Unitarian clergy, he had the largest congregation. In 1845, Parker’s followers formed a free church which offered him a stable place from which to regularly voice his perspective to a growing audience. By the end of the decade, he was a national figure representing the most liberal wing of the religious community. At the same time he developed a perspective on society that would become a basis of social activism aimed at its improvement. He became a staunch member of Boston’s abolitionist community.

Parker remained active through the 1850s but eventually succumbed to the family disease and died of tuberculosis in 1860. Parker left an extensive literary legacy and collections of his papers and correspondence can be found at several locations, most notably the Andover-Harvard Theological Library and the Boston Public Library. Extensive bibliographies appeared in Dean Grodzins, American Heretic: Theodore Parker and Transcendentalism (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002); and Joel Myerson, Theodore Parker: A Descriptive Bibliography (New York: Garland Publishing, 1981).

Primary Sources

Parker, Theodore. The Collected Works of Theodore Parker. 14 vols. London: Trubner & Co, 1963-1972.

-----. A Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion. Boston: American Unitarian Association, 1907. 451 pp.

-----. The Revival of Religion which We Need, A Sermon, delivered at Music Hall, Boston, on Sunday, April 11, 1858. Phonographically reported by James M. W. Yerrinton. Boston: W. L. Kent & Compnay, 1858. 20 pp.

-----. Theodore Parker: An Anthology. Ed. by Henry Steele Commager. Boston: Beacon Press, 1960. 391 pp.
-----. Theodore Parker’s Experience as a Minister, With Some Account of His Early Life and Education for the Ministry Contained in a Letter From Him to the Members of the Twenty-Eighth Congregational Society of Boston. Boston: Rufus Leighton, Jr. 1859. 182 pp.

-----. The Works of Theodore Parker, Centennial Edition. 15 vols. Boston: American Unitarian Association, 1907-1913.

Secondary Sources

Chadwick, John White. Theodore Parker: Preacher and Reformer. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1900. 422 pp.

Chuman, Jonathan Nathan. Between Secularism and Supernaturalism: The Religious Philosophies of Theodore Parker and Felix Adler. New York: Columbia University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1994.

Collins, Robert E. Theodore Parker: American Transcendentalist. Metuchen, N J: Scarecrow Press 1973.

Commager, Henry Steele. Theodore Parker. Boston: Little, Brown, 1936. 339 pp. Rpt as: Theodore Parker: Yankee Crusader. Boston: Beacon Press, 1960. 339 pp.

Cooke Frances E. The Story of Theodore Parker. Boston, MA: Cupples, Upham & Company. 1883. 115 pp.

Dean, Peter. The Life and Teachings of Theodore Parker. Williams & Norgate 1877. 286 pp.

Dirks, John Edward. The Critical Theology of Theodore Parker. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948. 173 pp.

Frothingham, Octavius Brooks. Theodore Parker: A Biography. Boston: James R. Osgood & Co, 1874. 588 pp.

Grodzins, Dean. American Heretic: Theodore Parker and Transcendentalism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. 631 pp.

-----. “Theodore Parker and the 28th Congregational Society: The Reform Church and the Spirituality of Reformers in Boston, 1845-1859,” in Charles Capper and Conrad E. Wright, eds., Transient and Permanent: The Transcendentalist Movement and Its Contexts. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society 2002.

Gura, Philip F. “Theodore Parker and the South Boston Ordination: The Textual Tangle of A Discourse on the Transient and Permanent in Christianity.” In Joel Myerson, ed., Studies in the American Renaissance, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1988, pp. 149-178.

Hudson, Herbert Edson. “The Quest for the Historical Parker.” Proceedings of the Unitarian Historical Society 13, Pt. 1 (1961): 45-61.

-----. “Recent Interpretations of Parker: An Evaluation of the Literature Since 1936,” Proceedings of the Unitarian Historical Society 13, Pt. 1 (1960): 1-35.

Martin, John Herbert. Theodore Parker. Chicago: University of Chicago, Ph.D. dissertation. 1953.

Riback, William H. “Theodore Parker of Boston: Social Reformer.” Social Service Review 22 (1948): 451-460.

Smith, H. Shelton. “Was Theodore Parker a Transcendentalist?” New England Quarterly 23 (1950): 351-364.

Newbrough, George F. “Reason and Understanding in the Works of Theodore Parker.” South Atlantic Quarterly 47 (1948): 64-75.

Teed, Paul E. “‘A Brave Man’s Child’: Theodore Parker and the Memory of the American Revolution.” Historical Journal of Massachusetts (Summer 2001).

Walkley, Albert. Theodore Parker: A Series of Letters. Boston: Neponset Press, 1900. 127 pp.

Weiss, John. Life and Correspondence of Theodore Parker. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton & Company 1864.

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Free Religious Association

In the 1860s, as Unitarianism was taking on the characteristics of a separate denomination, the issue arose as to it specifically Christian nature or its openness to religiously liberal people of all religious persuasions. When the new Unitarian organization took shape in the mid 1860s, the majority voted to adhere to their Christian roots. This decision prompted the most liberal among them in 1867 to form a separate body, the Free Religious Association. Leading members of the new group included Octavius Brooks Frothingham (the first president), Francis Ellingwood Abbott, Cyrus A. Bartol, William James Potter, John Weiss, David Wasson, John White Chadwick, Louisa May Alcott, and Ralph Waldo Emerson. The group was compatible with the idea of outgrowing Christianity in favor of a more universal theism that allowed individuals to think about God in a variety of ways.

The Free Religion movement as originally constituted did not survive the 1870s, but it continued to reemerge, especially among the Unitarians outside New England, and operated as a force to continually urge Unitarianism toward the left religiously. It would lead to the formation of the National Liberal league and the American Secular Union (which in 1885 chose Robert G. Ingersoll as its president). Many of the FRA founders would go on to distinguished careers both inside and outside of the Unitarian fold.

Sources

Albrecht, Robert C. “The Political Thought of David A. Wasson.American Quarterly 17, 4 (Winter 1965): 742-748.

Boller, Paul F., Jr. American Transcendentalism, 1830-1860: An Intellectual Inquiry, New York G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1974. 227 pp.

Caruthers, J. Wade. Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Gentle Radical. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1977.

-----. “Who Was Octavius Brooks Frothingham?” New England Quarterly 43 (1970): 631-637.

Elliott, Samuel, ed. Heralds of a Liberal Faith, 3 vols. Boston: Boston American Unitarian Association, 1910.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Early Lectures of Ralph Waldo Emerson. 3 vols. Ed. by Stephen F. Whicher, Robert F. Spiller, and Wallace E. Williams. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1961-72.

Foster, Charles H., ed. Beyond Concord: Selected Writings of David Atwood Wasson. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press,, 1965.

Peden, W. Creighton. Civil War Pulpit to World’s Parliament of Religion: The Thought of William James Potter, 1829-1893. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. 395 pp.

-----. Empirical Tradition in American Liberal Religious Thought, 1860-1960. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2009. 310 pp.

-----. Evolutionary Theist: An Intellectual Biography of Minot Judson Savage, 1841-1918. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. 229 pp.

-----. “Francis Ellingwood Abbot: Prophet of Free Religion.” Proceedings of the Unitarian Universalist Historical Society, 22, Pt. 1 (1990/91): 51-61.

-----. An Intellectual Biography of David Atwood Wasson (1828-1887); an American Trancendentalist Thinker. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2008

-----. “The Foundations of William J. Potter’s ‘Religion of Humanity’,” Religious Humanism 27 (1993): 67-77.

-----. “A Young Minister Faces the 1860s: William James Potter, 1829-1893,” Religious Humanism 28 (1994): 115-126.

Potter, William James . Essays and Sermons of Williams James Potter (1829-1893), Unitarian Minister and Freethinker. Ed. by W. Creighton Peden and Everett J., Jr. Tarbox, Jr. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003.

The Free Religious Association: Its Twenty Five Years and Their Meaning (1892).

-----. Twenty-five Sermons of Twenty-five Years (1885).

-----. Lectures and Sermons (1895), Ed. by Francis Ellingwood Abbot.

Spence, Robert. “D. A. Wasson, Forgotten Transcendentalist.” American Literature. 27, 1 (March 1955): 31-41.

Wasson, David A. Ancient Feasts & Modern Famine. a Sermon... before the Worcester Free Church, 12/2/1855. Baker, Trumbull & Barnes, Worcester, 1855. 16 pp.

-----. Beyond Concord: Selected Writings of David Atwood Wasson. Ed. by Charles H. Foster. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1965. 334 pp.

-----. Essays Religious, Social, Political. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1889.

-----. Poems. Ed. by Ednah Dow Littlehale Cheney. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1888. 172 pp.

-----. The Radical Creed: A Discourse at the Installation of Rev. David A. Wasson, As Minister of the Twenty-Eighth Congregational Society of Boston, May 7, 1865. Boston: Walker, Fuller, 1865. 40 pp.

-----. Religion Divorced from Theology. A Farewell Discourse, preached before the Congregational Society in Groveland, August 29, 1852, Second Edition, published by request. Boston: Thurston, Torry & Emerson, 1852.

-----. The Universe No Failure. a Sermon before Worcester Free Church, 11/4/1855. Worcester, MA: Charles Hamilton, 1856. 15 pp.

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Francis Ellingwood Abbot (1836-1903) and the American Liberal Union

Unitarian minister Francis Ellingwood Abbott rejected the affirmation of the 1865 founding meeting of the National Conference of Unitarian Churches that affirmed its members to be “disciples of the Lord Jesus Christ.” Newly ordained, he failed to convince his colleagues to adopt a more inclusive stance, and thus in 1967 (while still serving a Unitarian pulpit) joined with his more liberal colleagues in the formation of the Free Religious Association. He ran into problems in 1868, when a New Hampshire Court ruled that the radical supporters he pastured at Dover were non-Christians, and hence forbidden to use the local church building as a meeting place. He resigned and moved to Toledo, Ohio, as the minister of the local Unitarian Society.

Abbot also edited and published the Index, the magazine of the FRA. In 1873, he moved the magazine to Boston, and began to call for the formation of numerous local Liberal Leagues to oppose what he saw as the Christian bondage into which the nation had succumbed. Those local groups came together in 1876 to form the National Liberal League. Robert Ingersoll became the organization’s vice-president. Two years later, both Abbott and Ingersoll resigned from the League over its support of D. M. Bennett who had been arrested for circulating obscene material in the form of a book on birth control. This case brought the league into opposition with the infamous Anthony Comstock. In 1880 Abbot turned the editorship of The Index to William James Potter (1829-1893) and pursued a Ph.D. in philosophy at Harvard University. He graduated in 1881, and became an instructor at a boy’s school in Cambridge, Massachusetts. While there, he wrote his most heralded text, Scientific Theism (1885), in which he laid out the principles of what he saw as a religion of scientific realism.

Meanwhile, in 1883 the National Liberal League changed its name to the National Secular Union under which name it would exist for the next decade. Freethinker Robert Green Ingersoll (1833-1899), who described himself as an agnostic, would serve as one of its presidents. In 1892, freethinker Samuel P. Putnam (1839-1896) formed the Freethought Federation of America which in 1894 merged with the National Secular Union to form the American Secular Union, which continued as a Freethought organization into the 1920s. Among Abbot’s last book was The Way Out of Agnosticism, or The Philosophy of Free Religion (1893), which continued to offer his scientific religion in place of the more secular perspective that the Union was pursuing.

Primary Sources

Abbot, Francis E. The Collected Essays of Francis Ellingwood Abbot (1836-1903). 3 vols. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1996.

-----. Gleanings from Francis Ellingwood Abbot’s Writings, Free religion in a free state. Selected by Ross Winans. Baltimore : John P. Des Forges, 1872. 15 pp.

-----, The Impeachment of Christianity. Ramsgate: T. Scott, 1872.

-----. Scientific Theism. Boston: Little, Brown, And Company 1885. 219 pp.

-----, Truths for the Times. Toledo, OH: The Index Association, 1872.

The Way Out of Agnosticism, or The Philosophy of Free Religion. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1893. Rpt. New York: AMS Press 1980. 83 pp.

American Secular Union and Freethought Federation. New York: Truth Seeker Co, 1892.

Secondary Sources

Ahlstrom, Sydney E. “Francis Ellingwood Abbot and the Free Religious Association” Proceedings of the Unitarian Historical Society 1973-1975, Vol. 17, Pt. 2 (1975): 1-21.

-----. Francis Ellingwood Abbot: His Education and Active Career.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1951.

-----, and Robruce Mullin. The Scientific Theist: A Life of Francis Ellingwood Abbot. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1987.

Callahan, William Jerome. “The Philosophy of Francis Ellingwood Abbot.” New York: Columbia University, Ph.D. dissertation,1958.

DeKay, Sam Hoffman. An American Humanist: The Religious Thought of Francis Ellingwood Abbot. New York: Columbia University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1977.

Peden, W. Creighton. The Philosopher of Free Religion. New York: Peter Lang Publishing 1992. 203 pp.

Potter, William James. The Free Religious Association: Its Twenty Five Years and Their Meaning (1892).

Rivers, Fred M. “Francis Ellingwood Abbot: Free Religionist and Cosmic Philosopher.” College Park, MD: University of Maryland, Ph.D. dissertation.

Williams, Gardner. “Francis Ellingwood Abbot: Free Religionist. The Toledo Episode, 1869-1873.” Northwest Ohio Quarterly 20 (1948): 128-143.

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Nineteenth-Century American Freethought

Sources

Annan, Noel. “The Strands of Unbelief.” In Harman Grosewood, ed. Ideas and Beliefs of the Victorians. New York: 1949.

Brown, Marshall G., and Gordon Stein. Freethought in the United States: A Descriptive Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978. 146 pp.

Burtis, Mary Elizabeth. Moncure Conway., 1832-1907. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1952.

Cady, Daniel. “Freethinkers and Hell Raisers: A Brief History of American Atheism and Secularism.” in Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

Carver, Charles. Braun the Iconoclast. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1957. 196 pp. Rpt. 1987.

Conway, Moncure. Autobiography. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1904.

Cooper, Berenice. The Contribution of the Freien Gemeinden to Sciences, Arts, and Letters in Wisconsin. Transcations of the Wisconsin Academy of Letters for 1964 and 1965.

-----. “Echoes from the Past—German Free Religion, 1850 Style.” Unitarian –Universalist Register-Leader (April 1965).

Cothran, A. N. The Little Blue Book Man and the Big American Parade: A Biography of Emanuel Haldeman-Julius. Ciollege Park, MD: University of Maryland, Ph.D. dissertation, 1966.

Dalgliesh, Malcolm. The Sage of San Diego Said Choose Quality and Reason. New York: A New Enlightenment, n.d. 100 pp.

D’entremont, John. Moncure Conway. London: South Place Ethical Socoety, 1977.

-----. Moncure Conway: The American Years, 1832-1865. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Goldberg, Isaac. “E. Haldeman-Julius A Psychography.” The Stratford Monthly 4, 1 (January 1925).

Gunn, John W. E. Haldeman-Julius—The Man and His Work. Little Blue Book #678. Gerard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1924.

Hurth, Elizabeth. Between Faith and Unbelief: American Transcendentalists and the Challenge of Atheism. Studies in the History of Christian Thought. Leyden: Brill, 2007. 224 pp.

HurmenceHawton, Hector. The Humanist Revolution. London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1963. 247 pp.

Jacoby, Susan. Freethinkers: A History of American Secularism. New York: Herny Holt, 2004. 417 pp.

Johnson, James Hervey. “Charles Smith: 1887–1964.” The Truth Seeker 91, 11 (November 1964).

Joshi, S. T. Icons of Unbelief: Atheists, Agnostics, and Secularists. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008.

Koch, G. Adolf. Republican Religion: The American Revolution and the Cult of Reason. New York: Henry Holt, 1933. 334 pp.

Lackey, Michael. African American Atheists and Political Liberation: A Study of the Sociocultural Dynamics of Faith. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2008. 192 pp.

MacDonald, George E. Fifty Years of Freethought. 2 vols. New York: Truth Seeker Company, 1929.

Martineau, Harriet. Society in America. Ed. and abridged by Seymour Martin Lipset. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith 1968.

Marty, Martin. The Infidel: Freethought and American Religion. Cleveland: Peter Smith Publisher , 1961.

Maxwell, Alice S. and Marion B. Dunlevy. Virago. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc, 1985.

May, Henry F. The Enlightenment in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. 419 pp.

Mordell, Albert, ed. The World of Haldeman-Julius. New York: Twayne, 1960.

Persons, Stow. Free Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1947. 162 pp.

Post, Albert. Popular Freethought in America, 1825-1850. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

Putnam, Samuel Porter. 325 Years of Freethought. New York: The Truth Seeker Company, 1894.

-----. My Religious Experience. New York: The Truth Seeker Company, 1894.

Reichert, William O. Partisans of Freedom: A Study in American Anarchism. Bowling green, OH: Popular Press, 1976.

Ryan, William F. “Bertrand Russell and Haldeman-Julius: Making Readers Rational.” Russell: The Journal of the Bertrand Russell Archives (1978): 29-32.

Schroeder, Theodore. Constitutional Free Speech Defined and defended in a Unfinished Case of Blasphemy. New York: Free Speech League, 1919.

Sheldon, Henry C. Unbelief in the Nineteenth Century: A Critical History. New York: Eaton & Mains, 1907. 399 pp.

Stein, Gordon. Abner Kneeland.” American Rationalist (Nov./Dec. 1981).

-----. “D. M. Bennett.” Progressive World 24, 7 (September 1970): .

Taylor, Robert M. “The Light of Reason: Hoosier Freethought and the Indiana Rationalist Association, 1909- 1913.” Indiana Magazine of History

Thrower, James. Western Atheism: A Short History. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 1999. 157 pp.

Tribe, David. 100 Years of Freethought. London: Elek, 1967. 259 pp.

Turner, James. Without God, Without Creed: The Origins of Unbelief in America. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1985.

Underwood, Sara L. Heroines of Freethought. New York: Charles P. Somerby, 1876. 327 pp.

Warren, Sidney. American Freethought: 1860-1914. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

Whitehead, Fred, and Verle Murhler. Freethought on the American Frontier. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Boos, 1992. 314 pp.

Weiss, John. Life and Correspondence of Theodore Parker. New York: 1964.

Williams, David Allen. A Celebration of Humanism and Freethought. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1995.

Wright, Lawrence. Saints and Sinners. New York: Random House, 1993.

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Abner Kneeland (1774-1844)

Abner Kneeland, a Universalist minister, and later outspoken Freethinker became the last man to be convicted of blasphemy in the state of Massachusetts. Beginning his adult life as a Baptist preacher, he converted to Universalism after reading the works of British Universalist Elhanan Winchester. He later met and became good friends with Hosea Ballou. Ordained as a Universalist, he was sent to his itinerant work in New Hampshire with and ordination sermon by John Murray.

By 1818, when Kneeland settled into a pastorate in Philadelphia, he was already doubting his religion. In the city, he eventually became acquainted with commutarian and skeptic Robert Owen, whose skeptical views he slowly adopted. Moving on to New York (1825-17), he began to share his views with is parish, and by the end of 19267 he and his supporters left to form a new congregation. the city’s Second Universalist Society. He further offended his Universalist colleagues by opening his pulpit to Frances Wright, the radical feminist, social activist, and religious thinker. In 1829, Kneeland renounced his remaining Christianity and resigned from the Universalist Church.

In 1831 Kneeland moved to Boston as the “lecturer” of what was called the First Society of Free Enquirers. Toe the large crowds that gathered to hear him, he articulated beliefs that could best be termed pantheist—identifying God with the nature in which humans move and have their being. In 1833, he penned a public letter in which he stated that the god of the Universalists was but “a chimera of their own imagination.” This statement led to a trial in which he was accused of being an atheist. He defended himself by arguing that he did not believe in the Universalists god and that he was a pantheist, not an atheist.

The courts would have none of his fine distinctions, and also was opposed to the broad social changes he advocated. Convicted, he spent sixty days in jail in 1838. His incarceration led to a number of prominent citizens demanding his pardon, most notably William Ellery Channing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Theodore Parker, George Ripley, William Lloyd Garrison, and Bronson Alcott. This celebrated case became the last instance of a person being jailed for blasphemy in the United States.

After being freed, Kneeland moved to Iowa, and founded an intentional community called Salubria.

Primary Sources

Kneeland, Abner. The New Testament in Greek and English. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Wm. Fry, 1822-23.

-----. A Philosophical Dictionary: From the French of M. De Voltaire. With Additional Notes, both Critical and Argumentative. 2 vols. Boston J. Q. Adams, 1836.

Secondary Sources

Ballou, Hosea. A Series of Letters, in defence of Divine Revelation; in reply to Rev. Abner Kneeland’s Serious Inquiry into the authenticity of the same. To which is added, a Religious Correspondence, between the Rev. Hosea Ballou, and the Rev. Dr. Joseph Buckminster, and Rev. Joseph Walton, Pastors of Congregational Churches in Portsmouth, N. H. Boston, 1820. Posted at http://www.wordsvalley.org/node/21829.

French, Roderick Stuart. “Abner Kneeland.” In Gordon Stein, ed. The Encyclopedia of Unbelief. 2 vols. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985. Vol. I, pp. 379-80.

-----. “The Published Writings of Abner Kneeland.” Bulletin of Bibliography 31 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1974).

-----. “Liberation from Man and God in Boston: Abner Kneeland’s Free-Thought Campaign, 1830-1839.” American Quarterly 32, 2 (Summer 1980).

-----. The Trials of Abner Kneeland: A Study in the Rejection of Democratic Secular Humanism. Washington, DC: George Washington University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1971.

Kneeland, S. F. “Seven Centuries of the Kneeland Family. New York: n.p., 1897. 583 pp.

Levy, Leonard Williams. Blasphemy in Massachusetts. Freedom of Conscience and the Abner Kneeland Case: A Documentary Record. New York: Da Capo Press, 1973.

Post, Albert. Popular Freethought in America, 1825-1850. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

Stein, Gordon. “Abner Kneeland.” American Rationalist (Nov./Dec. 1981).

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Robert Green Ingersoll (1833-1899)

Robert Green Ingersoll was a lawyer, politician, popular orator, and advocate of Freethought. He was popularly called the Great Agnostic, and labeled his skeptical opinions agnosticism. A Civil War veteran, he served as Illinois’ Attorney General (1867-69) and was an active Republican. He delivered the nominating address for James G. Blaine, for President. Already a popular lecturer, his religious opinion, especially his attacks on orthodox religion, cut his support to the point of his being passed over for national office. He moved to Washington, D.C. in 1878 and then settled in New York City (1885).

His lectures were widely popular. They were repeated from platforms around the country and widely published both singularly and in anthologies. Most popular on religion were his lectures “Some Mistakes of Moses” and “The Gods and Ghosts.” He was a family man, but supported women’s rights.

In 1876, Ingersoll identified with the National Liberal League, founded by Ellingwood Abbott, and became its vice-president. The socially conservative Ingersoll resigned when the League chose to support Freethinker D. M. Bennett, who had been arrested for violating the laws preventing the circulation of obscene material. In 1885, the Liberal League changed its name to the American Secular Union, and Ingersoll rejoined and became the union’s president.

Ingersoll became a hero to the continuing Freethought movement and then for twentieth-century atheists and humanists. His birthday (August 11) is kept as a holiday for many, and his birthplace in Dresden, New York, is now a museum. There is a statue of him in Peoria, Illinois, where he lived for many years.

The many popular reprints of Ingersoll’s lectures created a bibliographical nightmare which Gordon Stein made sense of in his monumental study Robert G. Ingersoll: A Checklist. (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1969). See also Herman Kittridge’s Ingersoll: A Biographical Appreciation, issued as vol. 13 of The Works of Robert G. Ingersoll (New York: C. P. Farrell, 1901).

Primary Sources

Ingersoll, Robert Green. The Best of Robert Ingersoll: Selected from his Writings and Speeches. Ed. by Roger Greeley. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983.

-----. The Complete Works of Robert G. Ingersoll. 12 vols.. New York: C. P. Ferrell/ The Dresden Publishing Co, 1901. Posted online at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/robert_ingersoll/.

-----. Fifty Great Selections: Lectures, tributes, after-dinner speeches and essays carefully selected from the twelve volume edition of Colonel Ingersoll’s complete works. New York: C. P. Farrell 1929. 357 pp.

-----. Ingersoll’s Greatest Lectures: Containing Speeches and Addresses Never Before Printed Outside of the Complete Works. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1944. 419 pp.

-----. The Letters. Ed. by Eva Ingersoll Wakefield. New York: Philosophical Library, 1951. 747 pp.

Secondary Sources

Adler, Felix. “The Influence of the Late Robert G. Ingersol.” Ethical Record 1 (1899): 26-31.

Anderson, David. Robert Ingersoll. New York: Twayne Press, 1972. 137 pp.

Baker, I. Newton. An Intimate View of Robert G. Ingersoll. New York: C. P. Farrell. 1920. 207pp.

Cramer, Clarence H. Royal Bob. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952. 314 pp.

Roger E. Greeley. Ingersoll: Immortal Infidel. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. 1977. 171pp.

Jensen, J. V. The Rhetoric of Thomas H Huxley and Robert G. Ingersoll in Relation to the Conflict Between Science and Theology, Ph. D. thesis, University of Minnesota, 1959.

-----. “Thomas H. Huxley and Robert G. Ingersoll: Agnostics and Roadblock Removers.” Speech Monographs 32 (1965): 59-68.

Kittridge, Herman. Ingersoll: A Biographical Appreciation. Vol. 13 of The Works of Robert G. Ingersoll. New York: C. P. Farrell, 1900.

Larson, Orwin. American Infidel: Robert G. Ingersoll. New York: Citadel Press, 1962. 316 pp.

McCabe, Joseph. Robert G. Ingersoll: Benevolent Agnostic. Girard, KS: Haldeman Julius, 1927. 64 pp.

MacDonald, Eugene M. Col. Robert G. Ingersoll as He Is. New York: Truth Seeker Co., 1893. 199 pp.

O’Hair, Madalyn Murray. Sixty-Five Press Interviews with Robert G. Ingersoll. Austin, TX: American Atheist Press, 1989.

Rogers, Cameron. Colonel Bob Ingersoll. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1922. 93 pp.

Smith, Edward Garstin. The Life and Reminiscences of Robert G. Ingersoll. New York: National Weekly Publishing Company. 1904. 342pp.

Stein, Gordon. Robert G. Ingersoll: A Checklist. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1969. 128 pp.

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D. M. Bennett (1818-1882)

DeRobigne Mortimer Bennett, who spent his young adulthood among the Shakers, a celibate Christian communal group in nineteenth-century America, left in 1946 and married another former member Mary Wicks. He subsequently worked as a druggist, having gained some knowledge of herbs while a Shaker. His wide reading finally led to his conversion to Freethought, the writing of Thomas Paine being the most convincing.

In 1873 while living in Peoria, Illinois (where the popular agnostic lecturer Robert Ingersoll also resided), Bennett found the local newspapers refusing to print some of his letters that voiced his now radical religious views. In response, Bennett founded his own periodical, The Truth Seeker. Before the year was out, he moved to the more welcoming environment of New York City. It became, by the time of Bennett’s death a substantial journal with a national audience. For a time, it was the official periodical for the National Liberal League.

In 1878, Bennett attended the initial gathering of the New York Freethinkers Association, and a short time later was arrested for circulating obscene material in the form of a book called Cupid’s Yokes by Ezra Heywood, a birth control advocate. The book had been sold openly at the convention. Following a trial in 1879, he was fined $300, and sentenced to thirteen months in prison.

The Truth Seeker has continued under various managements, and was later associated with the American Association for the Advancement of Atheism, through the twentieth century to the present. Bennett died in 1882. A number of Bennett’s hard to find books may be found in the library of the University of Wisconsin and Madison.

Primary Sources

Bennett, D. M. Answers to Christian Questions and Arguments. New York: Truth Seeker Co., n.d. [1882?]. 146 pp.

-----. The Champions of the Church: their crimes and persecutions. New York, D. M. Bennett, 1878. 1119 pp.

-----. From Behind the Bars: a series of letters written in prison. New York: Liberal and Scientific Publishing House, [1879?] 565 pp.

-----. The Trial of D. M. Bennett in the United States Circuit Court. New York: Truth Seeker Office, 1879.

-----. A Truth Seeker Around the World. 4 vols. New York: Truth Seeker Co. 1882.

-----. World Sages, Infidels, and Thinkers. New York: The author, 1880.

Secondary Sources

Bradford, Roderick. D. M. Bennett: the Truth Seeker. Nineteenth Century America’s Most Controversial Publisher and Free-Speech Martyr. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2006. 412 pp.

“Roots of Atheism: D. M. Bennett.” American Atheism (November 1978) (December 1978).

Stein, Gordon. “D. M. Bennett.” Progressive World 24, 7 (September 1970).

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Freethought Women Leaders and Writers

Feminist historians in the last generation have recovered much of the neglected history of women’s participation in various social reform programs and the cause of women’s rights. As might be expected, many women came to see the church as an instrument in their subjugation. Some rejected Christian orthodoxy and moved into liberal churches, most notably the Universalists and Unitarians, while other rejected religion altogether and became freethinkers.

The refusal of conservative male leaders to allow women full participation in the abolitionist movement would lead to a gathering of women at Seneca falls, New York, the radical Wesleyan church there offering their building for the meeting, and launched the women’s rights movement that after the civil war began the push for suffrage and worked on a host of issues of vital importance to women. The women’s movement included a spectrum of organizations from the very conservation Women’s Christian Temperance Union, to the more secular-based National Woman Suffrage Association.

Relative to the history of Unbelief, women’s history is still in its beginning states, as much more effort has gone into exploring the role of women in religion, while secular studies have concentrated on their contributions to other fields, from sports to politics. Annie Laurie Gaylor’s book provides a good starting point.

Sources

Avrich, Paul. An American Anarchist: The Life of Voltairine de Cleyre. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978.

Beck, Frank O. Hobohemia: Emma Goldman, Lucy Parsons, Ben Reitman & Other Agitators & Outsiders in 1920s Chicago. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr Publishing Company, 2000.

Child, Lydia Maria. A Lydia Marie Child Reader. Ed. by Carolyn L. Karcher. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

Colman, Lucy N. Reminiscences. Buffalo, NY: H. L. Green, 1891.

Drinnon, Richard. Rebel in Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Eckhardt, Celia Morris. Fanny Wright: Rebel in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.

Farrell, Grace. Lillie Devereaux Blake: Retracing a Life Erased. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2007.

Foote, G. W. “Harriet Law.” The Freethinker (July 4, 1915).

Gage, Matilda Joslyn. Woman, Church and State. a Historical Account of the Status of Woman Through the Christian Ages: With Reminiscences of the Matriarchate. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company, 1893. 554 pp. Rpt.: Watertown, MA: Persephone Press, 1980. 294 p.

Gaylor, Annie Laurie, ed. Women without Superstition: No Gods, No Masters. Madison, WI: Freedom from Religion Foundation, 1997. 696 pp.

Gilbert, Amos. Memoir of Frances Wright: The Pioneer Woman in the Cause of Human Rights. Cincinnati: Longley Brothers. 1855. 86pp.

Goldman, Emma. Anarchism and Other Essays (New York, 1910)

-----. Voltairine de Cleyre. Berkley Heights: Oriole Press, 1932.

Goldsmith, Margaret. Seven Women against the World. London: Methuen, 1935.

Gray, Carole. “I Love Lucy.” American Atheist (Spring 1997). Re: Lucy Colman.

Karcher, Carolyn L. The First Woman of the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Marie Child. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.

Kern, Kathi. Mrs. Stanton’s Bible. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002, 304 pp.

Kerr, Andrea Moore. Lucy Stone: Speaking Out for Equality. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Kirkley, Evelyn A. Rational Mothers and Infidel Gentlemen: Gender and American Atheism, 1865-1995. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000. 198 pp.

Kissel, Susan S. In Common Cause: The “Conservative” Frances Trollope and the “Radical” Frances Wright. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. 1993. 175pp.

Kolmerten, Carol A. The American Life of Ernestine L. Rose. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1999. 300 pp.

Newsom, Carol E., and Sharon H. Ringe, eds. The Women’s Bible Commentary. Expanded ed. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998. 501 pp.

Perkins, A. J. G., and Theresa Wolfson. Frances Wright, Free Enquirer: The Study of A Temperament. New York: Harper & Bros., 1939. 393pp.

Rose, Ernestine Louise. An Address on Woman’s Rights, delivered before the peoples Sunday meeting, in Cochituate Hall, on Sunday afternoon, October 19th, 1851. Boston: J.P. Mendum, 1851.

-----. A Defense of Atheism: Being a Lecture, delivered in Mercantile Hall, Boston, April 10, 1861. Boston: J.P. Mendum, 1889. 3rd edition.

-----. Mistress of Herself: Speeches and Letters of Ernestine Rose, Early Women’s Rights Leader. New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2008. 389pp

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. The Woman’s Bible. 2 vols. New York: European Publishing Company, 1898. Part I. Comments on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. 217 pp. Part II. Comments on the Old and New Testaments from Joshua to Revelation. Rpt.: 2 vols. Seattle, WA: Coalition Task Force on Women and Religion, 1976. Rpt: Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1998. 325 pp. Rpt.: Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999.

Underwood, Sara. Heroines of Freethought. New York: Charles P. Somerby, 1876. 336 pp.

Waterman, William Randall. Frances Wright. New York: Columbia University Press. 1924. 267pp.

White, Edmund. Fanny Wright. London: Chatto & Windus, 2003.

Wiseman, Alberta. Rebels and Reformers, Biographies of Four Jewish Americans, Uriah Phillips Levy, Ernestine L. Rose, Louis D. Brandeis, Lillian D. Wald. Garden City, NY: Zenith Books, Doubleday & Company, 1976.

Wright, Frances. Biography, Notes, and Political Letters of Frances Wright D’Arusmont. Dundee, Scotland: J. Myles. 1844. 48pp.

Yuri, Suhl. Ernestine L. Rose and the Battle for Human Rights. New York: Reynal, 1959. 310 pp.

-----. Ernestine L. Rose: Women’s Rights Pioneer. New York: Biblio Press, 1990.

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Twentieth Century

Individual Freethinkers/Atheists

Joseph Lewis (1889-1968)

Freethinker Joseph Lewis was a self-educated atheist who developed his perspective from his reading of Robert Ingersoll and Thomas Paine. He moved from Alabama to New York City in 1920 where he founded Freethinkers of America and its associated publishing arm the Freethought Press Association. He began issuing a periodical, Freethinkers of America, in 1937 (later renamed Freethinker and then in the 1950s Age of Reason). In the 1930s, he also founded the Eugenics Publishing Company to publish materials on various medical issues. Over the yearsLewis, published, and reprinted a variety of books on Atheism.

Lewis, Joseph. American Atheist Heritage. Ed. by Madalyn Murray O’Hair. Austin: American Atheist Press,, 1981. 55 pp. Compiles Lewis’ writings of Jefferson, Franklin, Lincoln and Luther Burbank.

Sources

-----. Atheism and other Addresses. New York: The Freethought Press Association, 1941.

-----. An Atheist Manifesto. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1954. 64 pp.

-----. The Bible and the Public Schools. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1931.

-----. The Bible Unmasked. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1926. 236 pp.

-----. Burbank, the Infidel. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1929. 8 pp.

-----. Franklin, the Freethinker. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1926.

-----. In the Name of Humanity. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1949. 160 pp.

-----. Ingersoll, The Magnificent. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1957. 576 pp.

-----. Jefferson, the Freethinker. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1925. 48 pp.

-----. Lincoln, the Freethinker. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1925. 30 pp.

-----. Should Children Receive Religious Instruction? New York: Freethought Press Association, 1933.

-----. Spain: A Land Blighted by Religion. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1933. 96 pp.

-----. The Ten Commandments. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1946. 644 pp.

-----. Thomas Paine: The Author of the Declaration of Independence. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1947. 315 pp.

-----. The Tragic Patriot. New York: Freethought Press Association 1954. 237 pp.

-----. The Tyranny of God. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1921. 121 pp.

-----. Voltaire, the Incomparable Infidel. New York: Freethought Press Association, 1929. 91 pp.

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Clarence Darrow

Attorney Clarence Darrow, most famous for his defending taking a number of high-profile people charged with criminal offenses, also emerged as an agnostic of note. Born in Kinsman, Ohio, on 18th April, 1857, his father was an unbeliever who had lost his faith while training for the Unitarian ministry. Young Clarence attended Allegheny College and the University of Michigan Law School, and began his career in Ohio in 1878. He moved to Chicago in 1887.

Darrow’s first major case was a defense of Eugene Debs, president of the American Railway Union, and Darrow became identified with the cause of American labor. Along the way he, in 1906-7, he successfully defended William D. “Big Bill” Haywood, who headed the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). He also became a socialist and was a co-founder of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society. In his most famous criminal case, he defended two wealthy students (Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb) who had kidnapped and murdered a young boy. His defense saved them from the death penalty.

Over time, with the continued defense of a literal interpretation of Genesis by conservative Christians, Darrow’s 1925 defense of John T. Scopes, charged with teaching evolution in a Tennessee public school, had emerged as his most famous case, the subject of a Broadway play that was turned into a movie on four occasions. He lost the case, though the conviction was later overturned on a technicality. Darrow died on 13 March, 1938

Primary Sources

Darrow, Clarence. Attorney for the Damned. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.

-----. Closing Arguments: Clarence Darrow on Religion, Law, and Society. Ed. by S. T. Joshi. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2005. 232 pp.

-----. The Essential Words and Writings of Clarence Darrow. Ed. by

Edward J. Larson and Jack Marshall. New York: Modern Library, 2007. 288 pp.

-----. The Story of my Life. New York: Grosset & Dunlap 1932. Rpt.: with and introduction by Alan Dershowitz. New York: DaCapo Press, 1996. 508 pp.

-----. Verdicts Out of Court. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1963. 448 pp.

-----. Why I am an Agnostic: and Other Essays. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1994. 109 pp.

-----, and Wallace Rice. Infidels and Heretics: An Agnostics Anthology. Boston: Stratford, 1929. 293 pp.

Secondary Sources

Thirney, Kevin. Darrow. New York: Thomas Y. Crowelll, 1979.

Geiger, Ray. “Clarence Seward Darrow, 1856-1938.” Antioch Review (March 1953).

Johnson, Frank W. C. Rhetorical Criticism of the Speaking of William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Seward Darrow at the Scopes Trial. Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1961.

MacRae, Donald. The Great Trials of Clarence Darrow: The Landmark Cases of Leopold and Loeb, John T. Scopes, and Ossian Sweet. Mew York: Harper Perennial, 2010. 448 pp.

-----. The Last Trials of Clarence Darrow. New York: William Morrow & Company, 2009. 432 pp.

-----. The Old Devil: Clarence Darrow: the World’s Greatest Trial Lawyer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009. 352 pp.

Mordell, Albert. Clarence Darrow, Eugene V. Debs and Haldeman-Julius: Incidents in the Career of an Author, Editor and Publisher. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1950. 79 pp.

Vine, Phylis. One Man’s Castle: Clarence Darrow in Defense of the American Dream. New York: Amistad Press, 2005. 384 pp.

Weinberg, Arthur & Lila. Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1980.

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Marcet Haldeman (d. 1941) and Emanuel Julius (1889-1951)

Shortly after their marriage, in 1919, Marcet Haldeman and Emanuel Julius purchased a publishing concern in Girard, Kansas, and for the next decades published hundreds fo small inexpensive booklets through which they spread their related and for-the-time very radical set of ideas on religion politics and history. They published under the last name Haldeman-Julius.

Julius was born in Philadelphia in 1889, the son of Russian Jewish parents. The anti-Semitism he experienced as a youth led him to reject all religion. Though he dropped out o school in his teens, he read Socialist literature, which he could acquire for little or no cost, and found himself much attracted to its views. In 1915, he moved to Girard to write for Appeal to Reason, a socialist periodical. A short time later he met Marcet Haldeman, a feminist and sister of social reformer Jane Addams. They combined their last names to symbolize their belief in gender equality.

In 1919, they purchased the Appeal to Reason and its printing plant. Among their first publications was a novel they had written called simply Dust (1921). They subsequently became famous for the many small paperback booklets they published, most reprints of older literature which were sold at an ever-decreasing price. Through the 1940s, some 6,000 titles were issued. The booklets were aimed at informing the general public about things the publisher believed that people in power wished to keep them ignorant. Topics forbidden included topics included religion, personal freedoms, and birth control.

In 1933, the Haldeman-Julius’ legally separated. Marcet died in 1941. Emanuel died in 1951, from a accidental drowning.

At the time of his death, his firm had published more than 500 million books, and represented the first wave of what in the 1950s became the paperback revolution. Originally intended as throw-away volumes, in recent years the few surviving copies have become collectors’ items, and putting the bibliographical record of the company together a libnrarian’s nuightmare. See the “Laughingly Incomplete Checklist of Little Blue Books Cover Titles.” Posted at http://little-blue-books.com/articles/LBBChecklist.html.

Primary Sources

Haldeman-Julius, Emanuel. The First Hundred Million. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1928. Rpt. as: First Hundred Million: How To Sky Rocket Your Book Sales With Slam Dunk Titles. Vancouver, BC: Angelican Press, 2008. 272 pp.

-----. The Meaning of Atheism. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, n.d.. 32 pp.

-----. My First Years and My Second 25 Years. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1949.

Haldeman Julius, Emmanuel, and Marcet Haldeman-Julius. Dust. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius. n.d.. 251pp.

Haldeman-Julius, Marcet. Jane Addams as I Knew Her. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, [1936]. 30 pp.

-----. What the Editor’s Wife Is Thinking About. Little Blue Book #809. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1924.

Secondary Sources

Haldeman-Julius, Alice, ed. International Freethought Annual: A Group of Rationalists Look at the World of Today, Diagnose Some of Its Ills, and Point the Way to Intellectual, Social and Cultural Progress. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1940. 127 pp.

Gunn, John W. E. Haldeman-Julius--the Man and His Work. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1824, 64 pp.

Herder, Dale M. “Haldeman-Julius, The Little Blue Books, and the Theory of Popular Culture”, Journal of Popular Culture 4, 4 (Spring 1971): 881-891.

Herder, Dale M. “The Little Blue Books as Popular Culture: E. Haldeman-Julius’ Methodology.” In: New Dimensions in Popular Culture. Ed. by Russel B. Nye. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1972, pp. 31-42.

Holmes, John Haynes. Why I Am Not an Atheist, (With a Reply By E. Haldeman-Julius). Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, n.d. 64 pp.

McCabe, Joseph. Freethought and Agnosticism; lies and confusion in conventional literature. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1943. 31pp.

Mordell, Albert. Clarence Darrow, Eugene V. Debs and Haldeman-Julius: Incidents in the Career of an Author, Editor and Publisher. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1950. 79 pp.

-----. Trailing E. Haldeman-Julius in Philadelphia and Other Places: The early years of an author, editor and publisher who has done much to spread sound ideas on controversial subjects. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, n.d. 60pp.

-----. The World of Haldeman-Julius. New York: Twayne, 1960. 288 pp.

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Mangasar Magurditch Mangasarian (1959-1943)

M. M. Mangasarian was a Turkish-born American Freethinker. He had already been ordained as a Presbyterian minister when he arrived in the united States at the beginning of the 1880s to attend Princeton University. In 1885, he resigned the pastorate he was serving to become an independent preacher . he eventually drifted to the Ethical Culture movement, but left it in 1900 when he organized the Independent Religious Society of Chicago, an autonomous rationalist group, which he led until his retirement in 1925. He is remembered for the many booklets he wrote and published.

Sources

Mangasarian, Mangasar Magurditch (1859-1943). The Bible Unveiled. Chicago: Independent Religious Society [Rationalist], 1911.

-----. A New Catechism. Introduction by George Jacob Holyoake (U.S. printing, 1902; London: Watts & Co., 1904).

-----. The Mangasarian-Crapsey Debate on The Question: “Did Jesus Ever Live?” Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications.

-----. The Neglected Book or The Bible Unveiled. New York: The Truth Seeker Company, 1926.

-----. The Truth About Jesus, Is He a Myth? Chicago: Independent Religious Society, 1909.

-----. What is Christian Science? London: Watts & Co., 1922.

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Charles Lee Smith and the AAAA

The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism (AAAA) was an atheist organization founded in 1925 by Charles Lee Smith (1887-1964), a lawyer converted to atheism from his reading Freethought books. He subsequently became a writer for The Truth Seeker, an independent Freethought journal published in New York City. Smith promoted the AAAA and his perspective by engaging a variety of controversial actions, including multiples debates with Christian on various topics. Eventually the AAAA attained a membership of around 2,000, many university students.

In 1930 Smith purchased The Truth Seeker, which continued as an independent journal. It and the AAAA suffered in the 1930s from the depression and then increasingly from Smith’s anti-Semitism and racism. Just before his death in 1964, Smith sold The Truth Seeker to James Hervey Johnson, who moved it and the AAAA to San Diego. The AAAA continued by remained small, around 200 members in the 1970s. Being an atheist was a requirement for membership, It ceased to exist following Johnson’s death in 1988. The Truth Seeker continues to be published to the present.

Primary Sources

A Debate Between W. L. Oliphant and Charles Smith (on Atheism). Dallas, TX: F. L. Rowe, Publisher, 1929. 177 pp. Rpt. Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate, 1952.

Johnson, James Hervey. “Charles Smith: 1887–1964.”The Truth Seeker 91, 11 (November 1964).

-----. Superior Men: A Book of Reason for the Man of Vision. San Diego, CA: Author, 1949. 192 pp.

McPherson, Aimee Semple, and Charles Lee Smith. Debate: There Is a God! Los Angeles: Foursquare Publications, n.d.

Smith, Charles Lee. Sensism: The Philosophy of the West. 2 vols. New York: Truthseeker Co., 1956.

Secondary Sources

Cardiff, Ira D. “If Christ Came to New York.” New York: American Association for the Advancement of Atheism, [1932].

Crey, Homer. “Atheism Beckons to Our Youth.” World’s Work 54 (1927).

-----. “Atheism Rampant in Our Schools.” World’s Work 54 (1927).

Dalgliesh, Malcolm. The Sage of San Diego Said Choose Quality and Reason. New York: A New Enlightenment, n.d. 100 pp.

Graves, Kersey. The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors. New York: Truth Seeker, 1875.

Heller, Mordecai ; E. Haldeman-Julius and John D. McInerney. The Shameful Decline of the “Truth Seeker”: How a once-fine organ of Freethought fell into the clutches of ignoble bigots and became a sewer for Anti-Semitism. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications 1949. 24 pp.

McElroy, Wendy. Queen Silver: The Godless Girl. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2000.

Stein, Gordon. “Charles Lee Smith, 1887-1964.” American Rationalist (May-June 1984).

Swancara, Frank. Separation of Religion and Government. New York: Truth Seeker Co., 1950.

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H. L. Mencken (1880-1856)

Journalist H. L. Mencken developed a large national following for his irreverence, wit, and command of the English language. In the half-century since his death, he maintains a large following, and in the twenty-first century, a new generation of Unbelievers has discovered his writings on religion. Mencken described himself as an agnostic, but his opinions differ little from contemporary atheism. His coverage of the Scopes Monkey Trial appears as relevant in the midst of the current public debates on evolution as when they were originally written, and we still use his term, the “Bible Belt,” to describe the South.

A writer who left behind a mountain of words, Mencken has never been out of print, however, a host of newly edited books offer a easy access to the vast literature and new studies of him offer some assessment of his continuing impact. No less than four book-length bibliographical studies will assist the more dedicated Mencken fan locate exactly the items for which they are looking: Carroll Frey, A Bibliography of the Writings of H. L. Mencken (Philadelphia The Centaur Book Shop 1924); Betty Adler, comp., H.L. Mencken: an Annotated Bibliography (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1961); Richard J. Schrader, George H. Thompson, and Jack R. Sanders, H. L. Mencken: A Descriptive Bibliography. (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, 1998); and S. T. Joshi, H. L. Mencken: An Annotated Bibliography (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 2009).

The highly selective list below centers on biographical materials and Mencken’s writings that touch on religion.

Primary Sources

Mencken, H. L. Mencken on Mencken: A New Collection of Autobiographical Writings. Ed by S.T. Joshi. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. 263 pp.

-----. H. L. Mencken: Prejudices: The Complete Series. 2 vols. Ed. by Marion Elizabeth Rodgers. New York: Library of America, 2010.

-----. Happy Days 1880-1892. New York Alfred A. Knopf, 1940. 313 pp

-----. The Impossible H.L. Mencken: A Collection of His Best Newspaper Stories. Ed. by Marion Elizabeth Rodgers. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1991. 707 pp.

-----. A Religious Orgy in Tennessee: A Reporter’s Account of the Scopes Monkey Trial. Brooklyn, NY: Melville House, 2006. 206 pp.

-----. Treatise on the Gods. New York Alfred A. Knopf, 1930. 364 pp. Rpt.: Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. 336 pp.

-----, and S. T. Joshi. H.L. Mencken on Religion. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books (October 2002). 330 pp.

Secondary Sources

Fitzpatrick, Vincent. H. L. Mencken. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press (March 1, 2004). 216 pp.

Harrison, S. L. Mencken Revisited: Author, Editor, & Newspaperman. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1999. 144 pp.

Rodgers, Marion Elizabeth. Mencken: The American Iconoclast. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. 672 pp.

Teachout, Terry. The Skeptic: A Life of H. L. Mencken. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. 432 pp.

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Unbelief in the Jewish Community

Secular Jews, who dissented in both belief and practice from traditional Judaism, appeared in measurable numbers the nineteenth century. By the end of the century, various organizational forms, asserting allegiance to Jewish culture and traditions, but developing a certain distance from religion and the behavioral patterns it produced, appeared in a variety of movements from the agricultural communal movement to Zionism. The Reform movement emerged as an alternative between a purely secular approach to Judaism and the traditional Jewish religious life that reasserted itself as modern Orthodoxy in its several cultural variations (German, Eastern European, Hasidic).

In North America, a new non-theistic perspective on life and society was articulated by Felix Adler, a perspective that Jews could see as a secular form of Judaism. Beginning within New York’s Jewish community, over time the Ethical Culture movement lost much of its specifically Jewish flavor and attracted a number of members and leaders from the general population. Then through the twentieth century, even as the economic condition of the community was rapidly improving, a significant minority of Jews identified with various forms of Marxism. They also looked to other and movements led by intellectual leaders who like Marx combined a Jewish background with an attack upon traditional Jewish theism—Sigmund Freud among the most prominent.

Given the Jewish emphasis on education, it is not surprising that, beginning with Adler, a disproportionate number of the twentieth century leaders of the emerging atheist and Humanist communities were Jews. (In like measure, in the late twentieth century, a disproportionate number of American Jews assumed leadership roles in the new wave of Eastern religions.) Many Jews found their way to Ethical Culture, but just as many emerged elsewhere. Their leadership proved a necessary antidote to the anti-Semitism that came to dominate the American Association for the Advancement of Atheism.

At the end of the twentieth century, a new Humanist push within the Jewish community was founded by Rabbi Sherwin Wine who led what he termed a Humanistic Jewish synagogue in suburban Detroit. Out of his work a new Association for Humanistic Judaism emerged along with an International Federation of Secular Humanistic Jews based in Israel. The association is committed to maintaining Jewish culture while searching out the implications of unbelief in the deity traditionally credited with revealing the law as His will. Other secular Jewish organizations, wishing to affirm both a non-theistic approach to life and values they found in Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and culture, include the Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations http://www.csjo.org/) and the Center for Cultural Judaism in New York City (http://culturaljudaism.org/). The Center publishes two journals: Contemplate: The International Journal of Cultural Jewish Thought, an annual imprint journal and a web journal, Secular Culture & Ideas. Jewish Unbelievers, like the larger community of Unbelief, disagrees over its assessment of the value of religion, with or without God.

Sources

Berlinerblau, Jacques. Why Unbelievers Must Take Religion Seriously. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 232 pp.

Biale, David. Not in the Heavens: The Tradition of Jewish Secular Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010. 272 pp.

Blau, Joseph Leon, ed. “The Philosopher as Historian of Philosophy: Herbert Wallace Schneider.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 10, 2, (April 1972): 212-215.

-----. “Some Reflections on the Heritage of Humanism.” Humanism Today 2 (1986). Posted at http://www.humanismtoday.org/vol2/.

Chuman, Joseph. “Religion and Ethnicity: Which Has more Staying Power?” Humanistic Judaism 25, 3 (Summer 1997). Posted at http://culturaljudaism.org/ccj/articles/27.

Goldfinger, Eva. Basic Ideas of Secular Humanistic Judaism. Lincolnshire, IL: International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, 1996.

Goldstein, Rebecca. Betraying Spinoza: The Renegade Jew Who Gave Us Modernity. New York: Schocken Books, 2006. 287 pp.

Heller, Mordecai ; E. Haldeman-Julius and John D. McInerney. The Shameful Decline of the “Truth Seeker”: How a once-fine organ of freethought fell into the clutches of ignoble bigots and became a sewer for Anti-Semitism. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications 1949. 24 pp.

Hook, Sidney. Out of Step: An Unquiet Life in the 20th Century, New York: Harper & Row, 1987. 630 pp.

-----. “Pragmatism and the Tragic Sense of Life,” Commentary 30 (1960), pp 139-149.

-----. Pragmatism and the Tragic Sense of Life. New York Basic Books ,1974. 224pp.

-----. Sidney Hook on Pragmatism, Democracy, and Freedom: The Essential Essays. Ed. by Robert B. Talisse and Robert Tempio. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002. 420 pp.

Horowitz, Brian. “S. Ansky: Prophet of Modernism.” Posted at http://culturaljudaism.org/pdf/Ansky.pdf.

Jacoby, Susan. Freethinkers: A History of American Secularism. New York: Henry Holt, 2004. 417 pp.

Kallen, Horace Meyer. What I Believe and Why Maybe. New York, NY: Horizon Press, 1971. 207 pp.

-----. Why Religion? New York: Boni and Liveright, 1927. 316 pp.

Levy, Zev, and Karen Katz. The Early Modern European Roots of Secular Humanistis Judaism. Lincolnshire, IL: International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, 1998.

Malkin, Yaakov. Judaism Without God?: Judaism as Culture and Bible as Literature. Trans. by Shmuel Gertel. N.p.: The Library of Secular Judaism, 2007. 336 pp.

Mayer, Egon. “The Rise of the Seculars in American Jewish Life.” Contemplate 2 (2003). Postedat http://culturaljudaism.org/ccj/articles/23.

Michels, Tony. A Fire in Their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in New York. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009. 352 pp.

Posen, Felix. “An Experiment Whose Time Has Come.” Jewish Chronicle (London, England) (June 1, 2001). Rpt.: Contemplate 1 (2001). Postedat http://culturaljudaism.org/ccj/articles/24.

Rosenfeld, Max. Festivals, Folklore & Philosophy: A secularist revisits Jewish traditions. Philadelphia, PA: Sholom Aleichem Club, 1997. 274 pp.

Sarna, Jonathan. “The Rise, Fall and Rise of Secular Judaism.” Posted at http://culturaljudaism.org/pdf/Contemplate_Sarna.pdf.

Schneider, Herbert W. Morals for Mankind. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1960. 82 pp.

Seid, Judith. God-Optional Judaism: Alternatives for Cultural Jews Who Love Their History, Heritage, and Community. New York: Citadel, 2001. 226 pp.

-----, ed. Understanding Secular Humanistic Judaism. Kopinvant Secular Press, 1990. 84 pp.

-----. We Rejoice in Our Heritage: Home Rituals for Secular and Humanistic Jews. Kopinvant Secular Press, 1989. 45 pp.

Shane, Paul G. Shabbes Book: A Secular Humanist Guide to the History, Relevance & Ways of Observing Shabbes, Shabbat, the Sabbath with an Annotated Bibliography. Lincolnshire, IL: International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, 1998. 91 pp.

Silver, Mitchell. Respecting the Wicked Child: A Philosophy of Secular Jewish Identity and Education. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998. 248 pp.

Sorj, Brnardo. Judaism for Everyone ... without Dogma. Lincolnshire, IL: International Federation for Secular & Humanistic Judaism, 2010. 190 pp.

-----. “Secular Judaism in the XXI Century.” Contemplate 2 (2003). Postedat http://culturaljudaism.org/ccj/articles/20.

Tisch, Jesse. “Q & A with Rebecca Goldstein.” Posted at http://culturaljudaism.org/pdf/Contemplate_RGoldstein.pdf.

Tzaban, Yair. “An Unabashed Secular Jew.” Contemplate 2 (2003). Postedat http://culturaljudaism.org/ccj/articles/10.

Voss, Carl Hermann. Rabbi and Minister: The Friendship of Stephen S. Wise and John Hayne Holmes. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1980.

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Felix Adler (1851-1933) and Ethical Culture

Felix Adler, a young immigrant from Germany, initiated the New York Society for Ethical Culture and the whole Ethical Culture movement with a sermon he delivered on May 15, 1876. In this and subsequent lectures/sermons he developed a philosophy of moral existence drawing heavily from Immanuel Kant, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and a spectrum of additional contemporary thinkers. He attracted large attendance at his lectures which increasingly included those beyond the Jewish base he had originally established. Soon additional leaders emerged and new centers appeared in other American cities and even Europe. These ethical societies would later be associated through the American Ethical Union. The Union would become aligned with Ethical culture societies outside the United States and eventually make common cause with Humanists in the International Humanist and Ethical Union.

Adler emphasized action over affirmation and developed a number of welfare projects in New York City. He was named to a chair in political and social ethics at Columbia University in 1902, a position he retain until his death in 1933. As the Humanist movement developed within Unitarian circles in the decades after World War II, individual leaders and members moved freely between the two movements leading to a significant amount of cross-fertilization.

Primary sources

Adler, Felix, Atheism—A Lecture before the Society of Ethical Culture, April 6, 1879. Lehmaier & Bros., New York, 1884.

-----. An Ethical Philosophy of Life, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1918.

----- . Creed and Deed: A Series of Discourses. New York, Pub. for the Society for Ethical Culture, by G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1877. Rpt.: New York: Arno, 1972.

----- . The Essentials of Spirituality. New York: J. Pott, 1905.

-----. The Reconstruction of the Spiritual Ideal. New York: London: D. Appleton, 1924.

-----. “The Relation of Ethical Culture to Religion and Philosophy.” International Journal of Ethics 4, 3 (1894): 335-347.

-----. Life and Destiny; or, Thoughts from the ethical lectures of Felix Adler. New York, McClure, Phillips & Co., 1903.

-----. The Freedom of Ethical Fellowship. Philadelphia: S. Burns Weston, 1895.

Secondary sources

Blackham, H. J. “The Ethical Movement during Seventy Years.” The Plain View 6 (January 1946): 137-49.

Bridges, Horace J. Aspects of Ethical Religion: Essays in Honor of Felix Adler on the Fiftieth Anniversary of his Founding of the Ethical Movement, 1876, by His Colleagues. New York: American Ethical Union 1926 423 pp. Rpt. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1968. Rpt. New York: Ayers Company, 1968. 423 pp.

-----, The Emerging Faith: Answers to Questions on Ethical Religion. London: Watts, 1937. 149 pp.

Chubb, Percival. On the Religious Frontier: from an Outpost of Ethical Religion. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1931, 148 pp.

Chuman, Joseph. “Religion and Ethnicity: Which Has more Staying Power?” Humanistic Judaism 25, 3 (Summer 1997). Posted at http://culturaljudaism.org/ccj/articles/27.

Ericson, Edward L., ed. The Humanist Way: An Introduction to Ethical Humanist Religion. New York: A Frederick Ungar/Continuum Publishing Company, 1988. 205 pp.

Friess, Horace Leland. Felix Adler and Ethical Culture: Memories and Studies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.

The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Ethical Movement, 1876–1926. New York: A. Appleton and Company, 1926.

Guttchen, Robert S. Felix Adler. New York: Twayne, 1974.

Hemstreet, Robert M. “Felix Adler and the Free Religious Association.” Religious Humanism 17 (Spring 1983): 108-118, 143; 17 (Summer 1983): 64-75.

Kraut, Benny. From Reform Judaism to Ethical Culture. The Religious Evolution of Felix Adler. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1979. 285 pp.

Murphy, Howard R. “The Ethical Revolt against Christian Orthodoxy in Early Victorian England.” American Historical Review 60, 4 (July 1955): 650-17.

Muzzey, David Saville. Ethical Religion. Its Historical Sources, Its Elements, Its Sufficiency, Its Future. New York: American Ethical Union, 1943.

-----. Ethics as a Religion. New York: Simon and Schuster 1951. 276 pp. Rpt.: New York: Ungar Publishing Co., 1980.

-----. The Meaning of Ethical Religion. New York: American Ethical Union, n.d.

-----. “The Union of Hebrew and Christian Ideals in the Ethical Culture Movement.” Ethical Addresses [Philadelphia: S. Burns Weston]. 11, 8 (April 1904).

Neuhaus, Cable A Lively Connection: Intimate Encounters with the Ethical Movement in America. Ethical Press, 1978. 159 pp.

Neumann, Henry. Spokesman for Ethical Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1951. 173 pp.

Radest, Howard B. Toward Common Ground: The Story of the Ethical Societies in the United States. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1969.

Spiller, Gustav. The Ethical Movement in Great Britain. London: 1934.

-----. Faith in Man: the Religion of the Twentieth Century. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1908. 84 pp.

-----. The Mind of Man. London, Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1902. 552 pgs.

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Eustace Haydon (1880-1975)

Canadian Eustace Hayden, a prominent historian of religion at the University of Chicago’s Divinity School began his adult life as a Baptist minister. He subsequently earned his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, and in 1919 was named the chair of the Chair of the Department of Comparative Religion (still an emerging field at the time). He taught at the Divinity School for almost four decades.

Though still formally a Baptist, Haydon moved toward the new Humanist movement within the Unitarian church and commuted on the weekends to serve a Unitarian society in Madison, Wisconsin, as its minister (1918-1923). The subsequently became involved with the ethical Culture movement in Chicago and would serve as its leader for a decade following his retirement in 1945. By this time he had publicly identified himself with the larger Humanist movement and was among the original signers of the first Humanist Manifesto (1933).

In 1956, the American Humanist Association’s named him the Humanist of the Year.

Sources

Haydon, A. Eustace. Biography of the Gods. New York: Macmillan Company, 1941. 352 pp.

-----. The Quest of the Ages. New York: Harper & Bros., 1929. 243 pp.

-----. Man’s Search for the Good Life. New York: Harper & Bros., 1937.

-----, ed. Modern Trends in World-Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934. 250 pp.

-----. Pragmatism And the Rise of Religious Humanism: the Writings of Albert Eustace Haydon, 1880-1975. Vol. 1: The Conception of God in the Pragmatic Philosophy. Ed. by Creighton Peden and John N. Gaston. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006. 200 pp.

-----. Pragmatism And the Rise of Religious Humanism: the Writings of Albert Eustace Haydon, 1880-1975. Vol. 2, Secular Religion and the Public Addresses. Ed. by Creighton Peden and John N. Gaston. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006. 429 pp.

-----. Pragmatism And the Rise of Religious Humanism: the Writings of Albert Eustace Haydon, 1880-1975. Vol. 3, Meditations on Man and the Radio Talks. Ed. by Creighton Peden and John N. Gaston. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006. 229 pp.

Peden, Creighton. A Good Life in a World Made Good: Albert Eustace Haydon, 1880-1975. American Liberal Religious Thought. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2006. 312 pp.

Tapp, Robert B. “How Often Haydon Said It First!.” A Journal of Liberal Religion (2006). Posted at http://meadville.edu/LL_JLR_v8_n1_Tapp.htm.

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Herbert Wallace Schneider (1892-1984)

Dr. Herbert Wallace Schneider, a Humanist affiliated with the Ethical Culture Movement in New York, was for many years a professor of Philosophy at Columbia University. Born in Ohio, he attended Columbia where he studied under John Dewey. After receiving his Ph.D., he became Dewey’s teaching assistant. He then served on the Columbia faculty for almost four decades (1918 to 1957). He later taught at Colorado College (195859) and the Claremont Colleges in California (1959-1963). He passed away in 1984

Schneider continued the Humanism of his predecessor, and, as Dewey had signed the original Humanist Manifesto, he signed the second.

Primary Sources

Ralph Ross, Herbert W Schneider, Theodore Waldman, eds. Thomas Hobbes in His Time. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1975.

Schneider, Herbert W. History of American Philosophy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963.

-----. Morals For Mankind. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1960. 82 pp.

-----. Religion in 20th Century America. New York: Atheneum, 1964.

-----. Science and Social Progress; A Philosophical Introduction to Moral Science. Lancaster, PA: New Era printing Co., 1920.

-----. Three Dimensions of Public Morality. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1956. 166 pp.

Smith, Adam. Adam Smith’s Moral and Political Philosophy. Ed. by Herbert W. Schneider. New York: Hafner Publishing, 1948.

Secondary Sources

Blau, Joseph Leon. “The Philosopher as Historian of Philosophy: Herbert Wallace Schneider.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 10, 2, (April 1972): 212-215.

Walton, Craig, and John Peter Anton, eds. Philosophy and the Civilizing Arts: Essays Presented to Herbert W. Schneider. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1974. 508 pp.

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Joseph Leon Blau (1909-1986)

Joseph Blau was an American philosopher and Jewish historian. Born in Brooklyn, New York, he attended Columbia University, where both John Dewey and Herbert Schneider taught, and from which he received his B/A., M.A. and Ph.D. (1944). He subsequently taught at Columbia for 34 years (1944-1977) He became chair of the Department of Religion in 1968-1977.

Blau was one of the signers of “A Secular Humanist Declaration” in 1980, and for many years a Member of the Fraternity of Leaders of the American Ethical Union.

Primary Sources

Blau, Joseph Leon, ed. Cornerstones of Religious Freedom in America. Beacon Press Studies in Freedom and Power. Boston, MA: The Beacon Press, 1950. 250 pp. Rpt.: New York: Harper & Row 1964. 250 pp.

-----. Judaism in America--From Curiosity to Third Faith. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976. 156 pp.

-----. Men and Movements in American Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1958. 403 pp.

-----. Modern Varieties of Judaism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972. 217 pp.

-----. “The Philosopher as Historian of Philosophy: Herbert Wallace Schneider.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 10, 2, (April 1972): 212-215.

-----. “Some Reflections on the Heritage of Humanism.” Humanism Today 2 (1986). Posted at http://www.humanismtoday.org/vol2/.

-----, and Francis Wayland. The Elements of Moral Science. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963. 457 p

Secondary Sources

Wohlgelernter, Maurice, ed. History, Religion, and Spiritual Democracy: Essays in Honor of Joseph L. Blau. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. 375 pp.

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Howard B. Radest

Howard B. Radest, a prominent contemporary Ethical Culture leader, is Dean Emeritus of the Humanist Institute and a member of the National Council of Ethical Culture Leaders. He attended Columbia College (B.A.), and received his M.A. at The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. in Philosophy at Columbia University. Over the years he has served as Leader of the Ethical Culture Society of Bergen County, NY (1956-1963); Executive Director of The American Ethical Union (1963-1969); Director of The Ethical Culture Fieldston School in New York City (1979-1991), and as Adjunct Professor of Philosophy at The University of South Carolina-Beaufort (1992-2008). He has served on a variety committees and board for various Humanist organizations and the Ethical culture movement and is widely known for his expertise in medical ethics.

Primary Sources

Radest, Howard. Bioethics: Catastrophes in a Time of Terror Lanham, MD: Lexington Books 2009. 174 pp.

-----. Biomedical Ethics: Humanist Perspectives of Humanism Today. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books 2006. 236 pp.

-----. Can We Teach Ethics? Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers 1989. 162 pp.

-----. Community Service: Encounter with Strangers. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

-----. The Devil and Secular Humanism: the Children of the Enlightenment. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1990.

-----. “Ethical Culture and Humanism: A Cautionary Tale.” Religious Humanism 16 (Spring 1982): 59-70.

-----. Felix Adler: An Ethical Culture. New York: Peter Lang Publishing 1998.

-----. From Clinic to Classroom: Medical Ethics and Moral Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.

-----. Humanism with a Human Face: Intimacy and the Enlightenment. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996. 212 pp.

-----. Toward Common Ground: The Story of the Ethical Societies in the United States. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1969.

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Horace Meyer Kallen (1882-1974)

Horace M. Kallen was the son of a rabbi. Born in Germany, he migrated to the United States with his family as a five-year old boy. He later attended Harvard, from which he graduated in 1908. While in Cambridge, he became acquainted with William James, edited his last book, and developed a life-long interest in psychical research. He later developed a friendship with Immanuel Velikovsky. In 1919, He became one of the founders of the New School for Social Research in New York City and would remain there until 1965.

Kallen was an unabashed pluralist. Philosophically, he focused the variety manifest among humans and throughout nature and society. He celebrated the processes of change, and the hope that a new future could bring. Culturally, Kallen argued that each ethnic and cultural group in America contributed to its richness as a national entity. At the same time he was Zionist, who worked for an independent Jewish nation.

While retaining a strong role within the Jewish community, Kallen developed a Humanist perspective and frequently addressed a spectrum of Humanist organizations. He was invited by John Dewey to sign the Humanist Manifesto, but turned down the opportunity out of a general opposition to creedal-like statements. He later joined with Dewey in writing a defense of Bertrand Russell when he was denied a teaching position due to his views on sexuality and marriage.

Primary Sources

Dewey, John, and Horace M. Kallen. The Bertrand Russell Case. New York: The Viking Press, 1941.

Kallen, Horace Meyer. Individualism An American Way of Life, New York: Liveright, Inc., 1933.

-----. Freedom and Experience. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1947.

-----. Ideals and Experience. Ithaca, NY. Cornell University Press, 1948.

-----. Democracy’s True Religion. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1951.

-----. Freedom in the Modern World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1952.

-----. The Liberal Spirit: Essays on Problems Of Freedom In The Modern World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1948. 242 pp.

-----. Liberty Laughter and Tears: Reflections on the Relations of Comedy and Tragedy to Human Freedom. De Kalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, [1968].

-----. Of Them Which Say They Are Jews. Ed. by Judah Pilch. New York Bloch Publishing, 1954. 242 pp.

-----. Secularism is the Will of God; An Essay in the Social Philosophy of Democracy and Religion. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1954. 233 pp,

-----. A Study of Liberty. Yellow Springs, OH: The Antioch Press, 1959. 151 pp.

-----. What I Believe and Why Maybe. New York, NY: Horizon Press, 1971. 207 pp.

-----. Why Religion? New York: Boni and Liveright, 1927. 316 pp.

Secondary Sources

Gilbert, James. Redeeming Culture: American Religion in an Age of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997

Hook, Sidney, and Milton R. Konvitz, eds. Freedom and Experience; Essays Presented to Horace M. Kallen. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press 1947. 347 pp.

Pianko, Noam. “The True Liberalism of Zionism”: Horace Kallen, Jewish nationalism, and the limits of American pluralism. American Jewish History (December 1, 2008).

Ratner, Sidney. “Horace M. Kallen and Cultural Pluralism.” Modern Judaism 4, 2 (1984): 185-200.

Ratner, Sidney, ed. Vision and Action; Essays in Honor of Horace M. Kallen. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1953. 277pp.

Toll, William. “Horace M. Kallen: pluralism and American Jewish identity.” American Jewish History (March 1, 1997).

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Jewish Humanist Movement

The Jewish Humanist movement emerged in the 1960s among a group of rabbis who desired to combine the religious life, their affirmation of their Jewishness and a Humanist perspective. Leading the way was Rabbi Sherwin T. Wine (1928–2007) who in 1963 founded the Birmingham Temple in suburban Detroit. He was soon joined by Rabbi Daniel Friedman who had led Congregation Beth Or in Deerfield, Illinois, to adopt humanistic thought and practice. Together, they led in the formation of the Society for Humanistic Judaism and the Association for Humanistic Rabbis in 1969. Secular Humanistic Judaism grew into an international movement, and the global umbrella organization, the International Federation of Secular Humanistic Jews, was established in 1986 in Detroit, Michigan.

Humanistic Jews value their Jewish identity but offers a non-theistic approach to the celebration of Jewishness. While appreciating the Jewish past, they attempt to present it in ways consistent with the best insights of modern scholarship. They value rationality, personal autonomy, feminism, the celebration of human strength and power, and the development of a pluralistic world with mutual understanding and cooperation among all religions and philosophies of life. Ethics and morality are deemed to rest upon a human foundation. Each individual must be responsible for ethical decisions and their consequences.

The Society for Humanistic Judaism (SHJ) 29 affiliated congregations and groups (2008) in the United States and Canada, and additional affiliates in Israel, Australia, Belgium, France, Italy, Mexico, Russia, and Uruguay. It cooperates with the Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations in sponsoring the International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, with centers in Jerusalem and Michigan, which functions as the rabbinic seminary for Humanistic Judaism. The Sherman T. Wine Papers have been deposited with University of Michigan’s Bentley Historical Library.

Sources

Arnold, Abraham. Judaism: Myth, Legend, History and Custom from the Religious to the Secular. Montreal, PQ: Robert Davies Press, 1995. 300 pp.

Chalom, Adam, Introduction to Secular Humanistic Judaism: Part 1 - Jewish History, New York: Society for Humanistic Judaism, 2002.

Cohen, Edmund D, and Sherwin T. Wine. The Mind of the Bible-Believer. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books 1988.

Cohn-Sherbok, Dan, Harry T. Cook, and Marilyn Rowens., comp. A Life of Courage: Sherwin Wine and Humanistic Judaism. Farmington Hills, MI: The International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism. 2003. 318 pp.

Feldman, Ruth. “Beth Or Offers Alternative Form of Judaism, Maintains Low Profile, Earns Activists’ Scorn.” North Shore 2, no. 1 (January/February 1979): 56–59.

Friedman, Daniel. Jews Without Judaism: Conversations With an Unconventional Rabbi. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books (March 2002. 108 pp.

Goodman, Saul N. The Faith of Secular Jews. New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1976.

Ibry, David. Exodus to Humanism: Jewish Identity without Religion. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 143 pp.

Kogel, Renee and Zev Katz, eds., Judaism in a Secular Age: An Anthology of Secular Jewish Thought, NYC, KTAV Publishing House, 1995.

Malkin, Yaakov. Secular Judaism: Faith, Values, and Spirituality. Portland, OR: Mitchell Vallentine & Company 2003. 150 pp.

-----. What Do Secular Jews Believe?, N.p.: Milan Press, 1998

Schweitzer, Peter. The Guide for a Humanistic Bar/Bat Mitzvah. New York: The City Congregation for Humanistic Judaism, 2003.

-----. The Liberated Haggadah: A Passover Celebration for Cultural, Secular and Humanistic Jews. New York: The Center for Cultural Judaism, 2006),

-----. A Modern Lamentation: A Memorial to 9/11. New York: The City Congregation for Humanistic Judaism, 2002.

Shavit, Yaakov. Athens in Jerusalem: Classical Antiquity and Hellenism in the Making of the Modern Secular Jew. Oxford, UK: Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 1999

Weisman, Sidney M. “From Orthodox Judaism to Humanism.” The Humanist 39, 3 (May/June 1979): 32–35.

Wine, Sherwin T. Celebration: A Ceremonial and Philosophical Guide for Humanists and Humanistic Jews. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2003. 439 pp.

-----. The Humanist Haggadah. Birmingham, MI: Society for Humanistic Judaism, 1979. 24 pp.

-----. Humanistic Judaism. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1978. 123 pp.

-----. Judaism Beyond God: a Radical New Way to Be Jewish. Farmington Hills, MI: Society for Humanistic Judaism 1985. 286 pp. Rpt. New York: Ktav Publishing House 1995.

-----. “The Roots of Secular Humanistic Judaism.” Sh’ma: A Journal of Jewish Responsibility (June 2000 ). Posted at http://culturaljudaism.org/ccj/articles/27.

-----. Staying Sane in a Crazy World: a Guide to Rational Living. Birmingham, MI: Center for New Thinking, 2005.

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Atheism in North America—Post World War II

Madalyn Murray O’Hair (1919-1995) and American Atheists

The most flamboyant, and in many ways tragic, figures of modern atheism was Madalyn Murray O’Hair (1919–1995). A controversialist who attracted media, she brought atheism to the attention of a mass audience, while at the same time embarrassing and angering many already committed to the cause who rejected her often acerbic style.

In 1963, O’Hair founded what became American Atheists, Inc., originally based in Honolulu but soon moved to Austin, Texas. The organization became the largest of the several Atheist organization formed during the century, with many supporting her lawsuits to stop mandatory prayer and bible reading in America’s public schools and to end tax-exempt status for religious property. American Atheists became the umbrella for a set of related organizations—the International Free Thought Association of America, the Society of Separationists, and the Charles E. Stevens American Atheist Library and Archives. O’Hair was both staunchly non-theistic and actively antireligious. She specifically rejected Christian beliefs in the authority of the bible, the historicity of Jesus, a life after death, and the authority of the Bible.

Murray met a violent end. In 1995, she and her two children, Jon Garth Murray and Robin Murray O’Hair, were kidnapped and murdered in a robbery scheme. Their bodies were not discovered until 2001. In the wake of Murray’s disappearance, the organization relocated to New Jersey and has continued. Ellen Johnson became the new president of American Atheists, a post she held until disagreements with the board led to her resignation in 2008. She was succeeded by the current president Frank Zindler.

The several thousand members of American Atheists are found in local chapters scattered across the United States. The organization may be contacted at PO Box 5733, Parsippany, NJ 07054-6733, or through its webpage at http://atheists.org.

Primary Sources

Murray, Jon. Essays on American Atheism. Austin, TX: American Atheist Press, 1986. 284 pp.

-----, and Madalyn Murray O’Hair. All the Questions You Ever Wanted to Ask American Atheists with All the Answers. Austin, TX: American Atheist Press, 1983. 359 pp.

Murray, William J. My Life without God. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982. 252 pp. Rev. ed. Harvest House Publishers, 2000. 336 pp.
The autobiographical account of one of O’Hair’s sons who converted to Christianity.

O’Hair, Madalyn Murray. All about Atheists. Austin, Texas: American Atheist Press, 1987. 407 pp.

-----. All the Questions You Ever Wanted to Ask American Atheists With All the Answers. Cranford, NJ: American Atheist Press, 1986. 248 pp.

-----. An Atheist Epic: Bill Murray, the Bible and the Baltimore Board of Education. Austin, TX: American Atheist Press, 1970. 313 pp. Rpt as: An Atheist Epic: The Complete Unexpurgated Story of How Bible and Prayers Were Removed from the Public Schools of the United States. Cranford, NJ: American Atheist Press, 1989.

-----. Atheist Heroes and Heroines. Parsippany, NJ: American Atheist Press, 1991. 338 pp.

-----. An Atheist Primer. Austin, TX: American Atheist Press, 1978. 30 pp.

-----. The Atheist World. Cranford, NJ: American Atheist Press, 1991. 358 pp.

-----. Atheists: The Last Minority. Cranford, NJ: American Atheist Press, 1990. 24 pp.

-----. Freedom Under Siege: the Impact of Organized Religion on Your Liberty and Your Pocketbook. Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1974. 278 pp.

-----. James Lick American Atheist. Austin, TX: Cranford, NJ: American Atheist Press, 1983. 33 pp.

-----. Sixty-Five Press Interviews with Robert G. Ingersoll. Cranford, NJ: American Atheist Press, 1989.

-----. What On Earth Is An Atheist! Austin, TX: American Atheist Press, 1969. 288 pp. Rev. ed.: Parsippany, NJ: American Atheist Press, 2004. 333 pp.

-----. Why I am an Atheist. Austin, TX: American Atheists, Inc./Society of Separationists, 1976. rev. ed. as Why I am an Atheist Including a History of Materialism. Austin, Texas: American Atheist Press, 1980. 56 pp.

Secondary Sources

Conrad, Jane Kathryn. Mad Madalyn. Brighton, OH: Author, 1983.

Dracos, Ted. Ungodly: The Passions, Torments, and Murder of Atheist Madalyn Murray O’Hair. New York: Simon and Schuster. 2003. 304pp.

Jenkins, Siarlys. Who’s Afraid of Madalyn Murray O’Hair? Princeton, NJ: Xlibris Corporation. 2005. 272pp.

LeBeau, Bryan F. The Atheist: Madalyn Murray O’Hair. New York: New York University Press. 2003. 387pp.

Lewis, Joseph. American Atheist Heritage. Ed. by Madalyn Murray O’Hair. Austin: American Atheist Press, 1981. 55 pp. Compiles Lewis’ writing on Jefferson, Franklin, Lincoln, and Luther Burbank.

Rapoport, Jon. Madalyn Murray O’Hair: Most Hated Woman in America. San Diego: Truth Seeker, 1998. 170 pp.

Seaman, Ann Rowe. America’s Most Hated Woman: The Life and Gruesome Death of Madalyn Murray O’Hair. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. 2006. 352pp.

Wright, Lawrence. Saints and Sinners. New York: Random House, 1993.

Zindler, Frank R. “Madalyn Murray O’Hair” In S. T. Joshi, ed. Icons of Unbelief: Atheists, Agnostics, and Secularists. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2008. 463 pp.

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African American Unbelief

In the wake of a generation of attention to African American religion, attention has finally been directed to Unbelief in the African American community. While some scholars have been asking why people of color did not turn away from religion because of its support of racism., Humanist and atheist scholars have responding by pointing to the many that did abandon any reference to faith, and a growing body of literature has appeared documenting that turn.

Sources

Allen, Norm R. African American Humanism: An Anthology. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1991. 286 pp.

-----. The Black Humanist Experience: An Alternative to Religion. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002. 275 pp.

Barbera, Don. Black and Not Baptist: Nonbelief and Freethought in the Black Community. Lincoln, NB: iUniverse, 2003. 278 pp.

DuBois, William Edward Burghardt. Du Bois on Religion. Ed. by Phil Zuckerman. Lanham, MD: Rowman Altamira, 2000. 209 pp.

Harold Cruse, “Jews and Negroes in the Communist Party, “ in The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual: A Historical Analysis of the Failure of Black Leadership. New York: William Morrow and Company/Quill, 1984,

Harrison, Hubert. A Hubert Harrison Reader. Ed. by Jeffrey B. Perry. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001. 505 pp.

Floyd-Thomas, Jaun M. The Origins of Black Humanism in America: Reverend Ethelred Brown and the Unitarian Church. New York: Macmillan, 2008. 288 pp.

Forman, James. The Making of Black Revolutionaries. Washington, DC: Open Hand Publishing. 1985.

Green, Karen. The Woman of Reason: Feminism, Humanism and Political Thought. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 1995. 224 pp.

Jackson, John G. Hubert Henry Harrison: The Black Socrates. Austin, TX: American Atheist Press, 1987. 7 pp.

Kelley, Robin D. G. “Comrades, Praise Gawd for Lenin and Them!: Ideology and Culture Among Black Communists in Alabama, 1930-1935, “ Science and Society 52, 1 (Spring 1988): 61-62.

Lackey, Michael. African American Atheists and Political Liberation: A Study of the Sociocultural Dynamics of Faith. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2008. 183 pp.

Long, Charles. “Perspectives for a Study of Afro-American Religion in the United States,” History of Religions 11, 1 (August 1971), 55.

Miller, R. Baxter. Black American Literature and Humanism. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1981. 128 pp.

Morrison-Reed, Mark D. Black Pioneers in a White Denomination. 3rd ed. Boston: Skinner House Books, 1994. 280 pp.

Nell Irvin Painter, The Narrative of Hosea Hudson: His Life as a Negro Communist in the South. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Pinn, Anthony. African American Humanist Principles: Living and Thinking Like the Children of Nimrod. ----------Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, 176 pp.

-----. “Anybody There? Reflections on African American Humanism.” Religious Humanism 31, 3 & 4 (Summer/Fall 1997): 61-78. Posted at http://www.huumanists.org/publications/journal/.

-----. By These Hands: A Documentary History of African American Humanism. New York: NYU Press, 2001. 360 pp.

-----. “Rethinking the Nature and Tasks of African American Theology: A Pragmatic Perspective. American Journal of Theology & Philosophy 19, 2 (May 1998). Posted at http://www.mamiwata.com/hoodoo4.html.

-----. The Varieties of African American Religious Experience: A Theological Introduction (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1998). 242 pp.

Scott, Jacqueline, and A. Todd Franklin, eds. Critical Affinities: Nietzsche and African American Thought. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.

Yeldell, Jason Scott. A Call to Sanity: The Collision Between the Existence of God and the Non-Existence of God from a Rational Atheistic Perspective. Trafford Publishing, 2006. 325 pp.

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W. E. B. DuBois (1868–1963)

African American activist William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, a professor of economics and history, was born at Great Barrington, Massachusetts, on February 23, 1868, He attended Fisk University but later earned his several degrees from Harvard, completing his Ph.D. in 1895. Du Bois was a cofounder (1905) of the Niagara Movement, which evolved into the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In response to the passing of the Jim Crow laws, Du Bois demanded full and immediate civil and political equality for African Americans. He coined the concept of the “talented tenth,” those elite African Americans who should accept the responsibility of assisting their less fortunate brothers and sisters.

In 1910, after thirteen years at Atlanta University, Du Bois became editor of Crisis, the periodical of the NAACP, and where he would remain for the next quarter of a century. He returned to Atlanta University in 1934. Over the years he became alienated from the direction taken by many of his colleagues who called for racial integration and gradually emerged as a separationist. His position was manifest in his later life with his retirement from the university (1944), his joining the American Communist party (1961) and in the end, his renouncing his American citizenship. He spent the last year of his life in Ghana, where he died in 1963.

For a more complete listing of Du Bois’ writings, see Paul G. Partington’s two compilations: W. E. B. Du Bois: A Bibliography of His Published Writings. (Whittier, CA: the Author, 1979), and W. E. B. Du Bois: A Bibliography of His Published Writings—Supplement (Whittier, CA: the Author, 1984).

Primary Sources

Du Bois W. E. B. Autobiography of W.E.B. Dubois: A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the Last Decade of Its First Century. Ed. by Herbert Aptheker. International Publishers, 1968. 448 pp.

-----. The Correspondence of W.E.B. Du Bois: Selections, 1877-1934. Ed. by Herbert Aptheker. Amherst, MA; University of Massachusetts Press, 1997. 510 pp.

-----. Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept. 1940. Rpt.: New York: Schocken Books, 1968.

-----. In Battle for Peace: The Story of My 83rd Birthday (1952).

-----. The Negro Church. 1903. Rpt. with introduction by Phil Zuckerman, Sandra L. Barnes, and Daniel Cady. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2003.

-----. The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 1899. Rpt., with introduction by Elijah Anderson. 1996.

------. Report of the Industrial Commission on Education. Washington, D. C: United States Industrial Commission Reports, #172, 1901.

-----. W. E. B. Du Bois: A Reader. Ed. by David Levering Lewis. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1995. 801 pp.

-----. Writings: The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade, The Souls of Black Folk, Dusk of Dawn. Ed. by Nathan I. Huggins. New York: Library of America, 1986.

Secondary Sources

Aptheker, Herbert. The Correspondence of W. E. B. Du Bois. Volume Selections, 1877–1934 Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1973.

Baker, Lee D. From Savage to Negro: Anthropology and the Construction of Race, 1896–1954. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Blum, Edward J. W. E. B. Du Bois, American Prophet. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007, 288 pp.

Fredrickson, George M. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1971, 1987.

Green, Dan S., and Edwin D. Driver. W.E.B. Du Bois: On Sociology and the Black Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Griffin, Farah Jasmine. The Souls of Black Folk ([1903] 2003) New York: Barnes & Noble Classics.

Haller John S. Jr. Outcasts from Evolution: Scientific Attitudes of Racial Inferiority, 1859–1900 ([1971] 1995) Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1995.

Hoffman Frederick L. Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro. New York: MacMillan, 1896.

Lewis, David Levering. W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1993. 752 pp.

-----. W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919-1963. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2000. 608 pp.

Orsi Robert A. “Everyday Miracles: The Study of Lived Religion.” In David D. Hall, ed. Lived Religion in America: Toward a History of Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997, pp. 3–21.

-----. Between Heaven and Earth: The Religious Worlds People Make and the Scholars Who Study Them. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.

Rudwick, Elliott M. “W. E. B. Du Bois and the Atlanta University Studies on the Negro.” Journal of Negro Education 26, 4 (1957): 466–476.

-----. W. E. B. Du Bois: Propagandist of the Negro Protest. New York: Atheneum, 1969.

Savage Barbara Dianne. “Biblical and Historical Imperatives: Towards a History of Ideas about the Political Role of Black Churches.” In: Vincent L. Wimbush, ed. African Americans and the Bible: Sacred Texts and Social Texture. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group 2000, pp. 367–388.

Savage, Barbara Dianne. “W. E. B. Du Bois and ‘the Negro Church.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 568 (2003):235–249.

Sterne, Emma Gelders. His Was The Voice, The Life of W. E. B. Du Bois, New York: Crowell-Collier Press, 1971

West, Cornel. “W. E. B. Du Bois: An Interpretation.” In Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, eds. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Books, 1999, pp. 1967–1982.

Wolfenstein, Eugene Victor . A Gift of the Spirit: Reading THE SOULS OF BLACK FOLK. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007.

Zamir, Shamoon. Dark Voices: W. E. B. Du Bois and American Thought, 1888–1903 (1995) Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Zuckerman, Phil. Du Bois on Religion. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2000.

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Hubert H. Harrison (1883-1927)

Hubert H. Harrison, African American activist and agnostic, is little known outside the african American community, but one of the important voices of the Harlem Renaissance of the early twentieth century. He was born in on St. Croix, in what was then the Danish West Indies and moved to New York in 1900, and emerged as part of intellectual circle of independent Black thinkers and developed a radical political position informed by his racial consciousness. He opposed American capitalism which he saw as dependent on white supremacy. As a socialist, he participated in the Marcus Garvey movement, one of the early movements with an international scope.

Harrison worked as a black organizer and theoretician in the Socialist Party of New York, founded the Liberty League) and edited the militant periodical The Voice, which he founded, and later the Negro World. Less known are his activities as a pioneer in the Freethought and birth control movements. He died at the relative young age of 44.

A collection of his papers are now housed at Columbia University.

Primary Sources

Harrison, Hubert. A Hubert Harrison Reader. Ed. by Jeffrey B. Perry. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001. 505 pp.

-----. The Negro and the Nation. 1923. Rpt. N.p.: Nabu Press 2010.

-----. When Africa Awakes: The Inside Story of the Stirrings and Strivings of the New Negro in the Western World. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1997. 152 pp.

Secondary Sources

Jackson, John G. Hubert Henry Harrison: The Black Socrates. Austin TX: American Atheist Press, 1987. 7 pp.

Perry, Jeffrey B. Hubert Harrison: The Voice of Harlem Radicalism, 1883-1918. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. 624 pp.

Rogers, J. A. “Hubert Harrison: Intellectual Giant and Free-Lance Educator (1883-1927).” In J. A. Rogers, World’s Great Men of Color. Ed. by John Henrik Clarke, 2 vols. (1947. Rpt. New York: Collier Books, 1972, pp. 2: 432-442.

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Humanism—North America

By Humanism, we are referring to that new non-theistic movement that emerged primarily within among Unitarians in the early twentieth century, though sharing roots with the nineteenth century Freethought. It had an early center in the University of Chicago where a variety of scholars were creating the field of comparative religions (or History of religions) and theologians at the Divinity school were exploring non-theistic perspectives. As originally developed, Humanism was pro-religious and found a home among the Unitarians, Universalists and various liberal (and congregationally organized) Christian churches (including the Disciples of Christ).

The movement found an early focus in the Humanist Manifesto of 1933 (available online at http://www.americanhumanist.org/who_we_are/about_humanism/Humanist_Manifesto_I), which argued for a naturalistic approach to life in an uncreated universe. It specifically branded as outdated theism, deism, modernism (then a popular perspective in many of America’s largest churches), and the several varieties of “new thought” (a popular perspective in a spectrum of metaphysical churches). It proposed a Religious Humanism that looked to the “complete realization of human personality” as a sufficient goal of the spiritual life. More than half of the signers were Unitarians.

Further manifestos representing the continued evolving of the movement in rapidly changing times would be issued in 1973 (available online at http://www.americanhumanist.org/Who_We_Are/About_Humanism/Humanist_Manifesto_II), 1980 (available online at http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=manifesto), 2002 (available online at http://www.iheu.org/amsterdamdeclaration), 2003 (available online at http://www.americanhumanist.org/who_we_are/about_humanism/Humanist_Manifesto_III), and 2010 (available online at http://paulkurtz.net/).

The new movement would find its primary organization representation in the American Humanist Association, which would come to have a number of fraternally related groups around the world. The internationalization of the movement, and its recognized alignment with the Ethical culture movement, led to the formation of the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) in 1952. In 2002, at its fiftieth anniversary gathering, the IHEU issued the Amsterdam Declaration 2002 as a statement of the fundamental principles of modern Humanism.

Humanists have argued about the role of religion in human life, some deriding it, some appreciating its contributions, and some attempting to articulate a was to be religious without God. Though at time conversations have been acrimonious, as a whole, the movement has been able to hold together and a full spectrum of perspectives are present in the IHEU. This issue became focused in the late 1970s when Paul Kurtz, a prominent Humanist intellectual withdrew from the American Humanist Association and formed the Council for Secular Humanism. The Council attempted to articulate a specifically non-religious form of Humanism. Kurtz had been important in creating the network that signed the 1973 Humanist Manifesto II and creating the new anti-pseudoscience movement. The Council would go on to become a national organization that would take its place beside the American ethical union and the American Humanist Association a major Humanist community. It associated Prometheus Press would grow into North America’s major publisher of Humanist, atheist, and skeptical literature. Meanwhile, those Humanists who remained within the Unitarian and Universalist churches formed the Fellowship of Religious Humanists, which evolved into The Friends of Religious Humanism, and most recently the Humanists.

Primary Sources

Asinov, Isaac. Asinov’s Guide to the Bible. 2 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1968-69.

-----. I Asimov: A Memoir. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1994.

-----. In Joy Still Felt. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1980.

-----. In Memory Yet Green. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1979.

Auer, J.A.C. Fagginger. Humanism States Its Case. Boston: Beacon Press, 1932. 156 pp.

-----, and Julian Hart. Humanism versus Theism. Yellow Springs, OH: Antioch Press, [1951]. 153 pp. Rpt.: Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1981.

Bahm, Archie J. 1953. “A Religious Affirmation.” The Humanist 13, 2 (March/April 1953):48.

Barker, Lee Charles. “A Theology of Democratic Socialism for Religious Humanists.” Chicago: Meadville/Lombard Theological School, D.Min. dissertation,1978.

Beattie, 1985, “The Religion of Secular Humanism.” Free Inquiry 6, 1 (1985): 12-17.

 -----. “Why I Don’t Believe in God,” The Humanist (January-February, 1974).

Blackham H. J. Humanism. Hew York: International Publications Service, 1968.

Bragg, Raymond. “An Historical Note.” The Humanist 13, 2 (March/April 1953): 62-63.

Dewey, John. Reconstruction in Philosophy. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.

-----. A Common Faith. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1934.

-----. The Quest for Certainty. New York: Minton, Balch, 1929.

Dewey John and Horace M. Kallen. The Bertrand Russell Case. New York: The Viking Press, 1941. 

Dietrich, John H. Humanism. Boston: American Unitarian Association,1943.

-----. The Humanist Pulpit. Vol. 1-??. Minneapolis, MN: The First Unitarian Society, 1927-1934.

-----. Ten Sermons: What if the World Went Humanist? Ed. by Mason Olds. ________ Fellowship of Religious Humanists, 1989.

Einstein, Albert. Essays in Humanism. New York: Philosophical Library, 1950, 1983

Ericson, Edward L. The Humanist Way: An Introduction to Ethical Humanist Religion. New York: Continuum, 1988.

Firkins, Oscar. “The Two Humanisms: A Discrimination.” The Humanist 4, 3 (March/April 1931): 1-9.

Foerster, Norman, ed. Humanism and America. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1930.

Foster, George Burman. The Function of Religion in Man’s Struggle for Existence. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1909.

Frothingham, Richard. “John H. Dietrich: From Humanism to Theism,” Unitarian Universalist Christian 42, 1 (Spring 1987): 25-34.

Goicoechea, David, John Luik, and Tim Madigan, eds. The Question of Humanism: Challenges and Possibilities. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1991.

Hodgin, E. Stanton. Confessions of an Agnostic Clergyman. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1948.

Hutcheon, Robert J. Frankness in Religion. New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1929.

-----. Humanism in Religion Examined. Chicago, IL: Meadville Theological School, 1931.

Huxley, Julian. Religion Without Revelation. 1928. Rpt.: New York: Harper and Brothers, 1957.

Kent, Gordon. Humanism: Religion of the Post War World. Denver, CO: the Author, 1944.

-----. Humanism for the Millions. Yellow Springs, OH: American Humanist Association, 1952. 45 pp.

Lamont, Corliss. Humanism as a Philosophy. New York: Philosophical Library, 1949.

-----.The Philosophy of Humanism. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1949. rev. ed.: New York, Philosophical Library, 1957. Posted at http://www.corliss-lamont.org/philos8.htm.

-----.Yes to LifeMemoirs of Corliss Lamont. New York: Horizon Press, 1981.
Posted at http://www.corliss-lamont.org/books.htm#memoirs.

Lippmann, Walter. A Preface to Morals. New York: MacMillan, 1929.

Mondale, R. Lester. Three Unitarian Philosophies of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1946.

-----. The New Man of Religious Humanism. Peterhead, Scotland: Volturna Press, 1973.

Morain, Lloyd and Mary Morain. Humanism as the Next Step: An Introduction for Liberal Protestants, Catholics, and Jews. Boston: Beacon Press, 1954.

Olds, Mason. American Religious Humanism. Fellowship of Religious Humanists, 1996.

-----. “John H. Dietrich: A Pilgrim’s Progress.” Religious Humanism 19 (1985): 2-10.

-----. Religious Humanism in America: Dietrich, Reese, and Potter. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1977.

Otto, M. C. Natural Laws and Human Hopes. New York: Henry Holt, 1926.

Potter, Charles Francis. The Addresses of Charles Francis Potter. New York: First Humanist Society of New York, 1930.

-----. The Faiths Men Live By. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentiss-Hall, 1955. Rpt. New York: Ace Star 1955. 256 pp.

-----. Humanism: A New Religion. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1930.

-----. Humanizing Religion. New York and London: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1933.

-----. The Preacher and I: An Autobiography. New York: Crown Publishers, 1951.

-----. The Story of Religion - As Told in the Lives of Its Leaders - With Special Reference to Atavisms, Common Elements, and Parallel Customs in the Religions of the World. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Company, 1929. 627 pp.

Randall, John Herman, Jr. The Making of the Modern Mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company/Cambridge: Riverside Press, 1920. 653 pp.

-----. Nature and Historical Experience: Essays in Naturalism and in The Theory of History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1958. 326pp.

-----. Philosophy After Darwin. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977. 352 pp.

-----. The Philosophy of Power; or, What To Live For. New York: Dodge Publishing Co., 1917. 339 pp.

-----. With Soul on Fire. New York: Brentano’s, 1919. 324 pp.

Reese, Cutis W. Humanism. LaSalle, IL: The Open Court Publishing Co., 1926.

-----. Humanist Religion. New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1931.

-----. Humanist Sermons. LaSalle, IL: Open Court Publishing Company 1927.

-----. The Meaning of Humanism. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1973.

Reiser, Oliver Leslie. Cosmic Humanism a Theory of the Eight-Dimensional Cosmos Based on Integrative Principles From Science, Religion, and Art. Cambridge MA: Schenkman, 1966. 576 pp.

-----. Cosmic Humanism and World Unity. Interface NY: Gordon and Breach, 1975. 274 pp.

-----. Man’s New Image of Man: an interpretation of the development of American philosophy from Puritanism to world Humanism. Pittsburgh, PA: Boxwood Press 1961.

-----. The Promise of Scientific Humanism. Toward a unification of scientific, religious, social and economic thought. New York: Oskar Piest 1940. 364 pp.

-----. Scientific Humanism / Its Origins, Teachings, and Social Program / an Outline of the Philosophy That May Provide a Basis for the Integration of the World’s Great Cultures. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius Company, 1946. Rpt.: Ridgefield, NJ: Independent Publications, 1986. 15pp.

Schlafly, P. “What is Humanism?” Free Inquiry 1, 2 (1981): 8.

Sellars, Roy Wood. The Next Step in Religion. New York, NY. The Macmillan Company, 1918.

-----. Evolutionary Naturalism. Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing Company, 1922.

-----. Religion Coming of Age. New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1928.

-----. The Philosophy of Physical Realism. New York, NY. The Macmillan Company, 1932.

-----. “Religious Humanism.” The New Humanist 6, 3 (May/June 1933):7-12.

van Praag, J.P. Foundations of Humanism. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1982.

Walker, Joseph. Humanism as a Way of Life. New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1932.

Webber, R. E. Secular Humanism: Threat and Challenge. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1982.

Secondary Sources

Avery, Jon Henry. An Analysis and Critique of Roy Wood Sellars’ Descriptive and Normative Theories of Religious Humanism. Denver, CO: The Iliff School of Theology and the University of Denver, PhD. Dissertation, 1989.

Blau, Joseph. “Some Reflections on the Heritage of Humanism.” Humanism Today 2 (1986). Posted at http://www.humanismtoday.org/vol2/.

Bragg, Raymond. 1953. “An Historical Note.” The Humanist (March/April) XIII:2:62-63.

Cherry, Matt. “A Brief History of Humanist Thought.” In Introduction to Humanism: A Primer on the History, Philosophy and Goals of Humanism. The Continuum of Humanist Education. Posted at http://humanisteducation.com/class.html?module_id=1&page=1#org.

Bullock, Allan. The Humanist Tradition in the West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1985.

Edwards, Fred. “The Saga of Freethought and Its Pioneers: Religious Critique and Social Reform.” Posted at http://www.americanhumanist.org/Who_We_Are/About_Humanism/

Engel, J. Ronald. “American Religious Humanism (1916-1936) and Its Leading Ideas Functioning as Metaphors of Ultimate Reality and Meaning.” Ultimate Reality and Meaning 8 (1985): 262-276.

Ericson, Edward L. “Humanism and the Tradition of Dissent.” Humanism Today 4 (1999). Posted at http://www.humanismtoday.org/vol4/.

Evans, Donald, ed. Humanism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Washington, DC: Washington Area Secular Humanists, 1999. 88pp. Posted at www.wash.org/docs/bluebook.pdf.

Floyd-Thomas, Jaun M. The Origins of Black Humanism in America: Reverend Ethelred Brown and the Unitarian Church. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. 288 pp.

Gier, N. F. “Humanism as an American Heritage.” Free Inquiry 2, 2, (1982): 27-29.

Hoertdoerfer, Pat. “Religious Humanism: The Past We Inherit; The Future We Create.” Humanism Today 12 (1998). Posted at http://www.humanismtoday.org/vol12/.

Kerr, Andrea Moore Kerr, Lucy Stone: Speaking out for Equality (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995

Krieger, Andrew Robert. Structural Ambiguity in a Social Movement Organization: A Case Study of the American Humanist Association. Washington, DC: Georgetown University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1983.

Kurtz, Paul, ed. Sidney Hook: Philosopher of Democracy and Humanism. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983.

Lins, Peter. “WASH: A Look Back at the Early Years.” In Donald Evans, ed. Humanism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Washington, DC: Washington Area Secular Humanists, 1999, pp. 85-88.

Meyer, Donald H. “Secular Transcendence: The American Religious Humanists,” American Quarterly 34, 5 (Winter 1982): 524-542.

Morain, Lloyd, and Mary Morain. 1992. “Reminiscences of IHEU’s Founding from the U.S.A.” International Humanist (July):6-7.

Olds, Mason. Religious Humanism in America: Dietrich, Reese and Potter. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1978.

Pinn, Anthony. By These Hands: A Documentary History of African American Humanism. New York: NYU Press, 2001. 360 pp.

Porter, Lois K. “Women in Secular Humanism: A Historical Perspective.” In Donald Evans, ed. Humanism: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Washington, DC: Washington Area Secular Humanists, 1999, pp. 29-44.

Radest, Howard B. The Devil and Secular Humanism: The Children of the Enlightenment. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1990.

Schafersman, Steven D. “The History and Philosophy of Humanism and Its Role in Unitarian Universalism.” An Address to the Unitarian Universalist Congregation of Butler County, Oxford, Ohio, September 24, 1995. Posted at http://freeinquiry.com/humanism-uu.html.

Schuler, Michael Anthony. Religious Humanism in Twentieth-Century American Thought. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1982.

Shiel, Timothy C. “Hartshorne on Humanism: A Comment.” Religious Humanism 24 (1990): 107-112.

Tapp, Robert B. “Humanism in the United States.” Humanistiek 3, 10 (June 2002): 47-54.

Weldon, Stephen P. “Secular Humanism: A Survey of Its Origins and Development,” Religious Humanism 33, 3-4 (Summer-Fall 1999): 42-61.

Wilson, Edwin H. “The History of American Humanism: What Worked; What Did Not Work.” Humanism Today 2 (1986). Posted at http://www.humanismtoday.org/vol2/.

-----. “The New Humanist (1928-1936), Forerunner of The Humanist.” The Humanist 35 (Jan/Feb 1975): 53-55.

-----. “The Origins of Modern Humanism.” The Humanist 51 (1991): 9-11.

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The Humanist Manifestos

The early years of the Humanist movement was marked by the publication of the Humansit Manifesto in 1933. Thirty-four of the leading spokespersons of the movement endorsed the statement. Forty years later, during with the issues at the center of the movements had shifted and the movement itself grown and developed signicantly, a new manifesto with an even larger set of endorsements was widely circulated. During the next forty years, the movement continued to grow, its primary organizational expressions developed an international cooperative organization, and it futher split along ideological lines.

In the years after the second manifesto, philosopher Paul Kurtz raised the issue of religion and left the American humanist Association to found the Council for Secular Humanism, the latter organization rejecting the idea that humanism was another religious option. In 1980, he issued a third manifesto, a declaration of Humanism as a secular ideology. In 2000 Kurtz released a book, Humanist Manifesto 2000: A Call for New Planetary Humanism, a full length exposition of the basic points of the previous manifesto.

In 2002, the International Humanist and Ethical Union issued the Amsterdam Declaration, the event coinciding with its fiftieth anniversary. The brief statement now serves as a handy definitional summary of the Humanist consensus. The following year, the American Humanist Association, on what would be the seventieth anni8versary of the original Manifesto, issued its updated version of Manifestos I and II.

Most recently (2010), Paul Kurtz developed a set of disagreements with his board over what is termed the New Atheism. The differences led to his resignation from a set of organizations he had established over the last thirty years, founded a new organization, the Institute for Science and Human Values, and issued a new “Neo-Humanist Statement of Secular Principles and Values: Personal, Progressive, and Planetary.”

Together, these manifestos offer a quick overview of the movement, the notables who supported it, and the issues that have given it its focus.

Sources

Duncan, Homer. A Critical Review of Humanist Manifesto I & II. Lubbock, TX: MC International Publications, n.d. [1970]. 38 pp.

“A Humanist Manifesto.” The New Humanist 6 (May/June 1933): 1-5.
Copy with signatures available online

“Humanist Manifesto II.” The Humanist 33 (Sept./Oct. 1973): 4-9.
Copy with signatures available online

Hall, Marshall. The Humanist Manifesto: Reflections by your next president. Miami, FL: Cypress House, 1971. 108 pp.

Kurtz, Paul. Humanist Manifesto 2000: A Call for New Planetary Humanism. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books 2000. 76 pp.

-----. “Neo-Humanist Statement of Secular Principles and values: Personal, Progressive, and Planetary.”

-----, and Edwin H. Wilson, eds. Humanist Manifestos I and II. Amherst, NY: Anmerican humanist Associatioon, 1978. 10 pp..

Schulz, William F. “Making the Manifesto.” Religious Humanism 17 (Spring 1983): 88-97, 102.

-----. Making the Manifesto: A History of Early Religious Humanism. Chicago, IL: Meadville/Lombard Theological School, D.Min. dissertation, 1975.

“A Secular Humanist Declaration.” Free Inquiry 1 (Winter 1980/1981): 3-7.
Copy with signatures available online

Sellars, Roy Wood. “In Defense of the Manifesto.” The New Humanist 6, 6 (May/June 1933):7-12.

Snyder, Lawrence W. “The Humanist Manifesto as Confession: Humanism and the Quest for Universal Religion, 1920-1933.” Paper read at the annual meeting of the American Society of Church History, University of Miami, Coral Gabels, Florida, April 1995.

 “A Symposium—A Look at the Humanist Manifesto Twenty Years After.” 1953. The Humanist 13, 2 (March/April 1953): 58-71.

“A Symposium—Comments on the Humanist Manifesto.” 1953. The Humanist 13, 3 (May/June 1953):136-41.

Urken, Maddy. “Humanism and Its Aspirations.” Posted online

Wilson, Edwin H. The Genesis of a Humanist Manifesto, edited by Teresa Maciocha. Amherst, NY: Humanist Press, 1995. Posted online

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John Dewey (1859-1952)

John Dewey, a major figure in American religious history made significant contributions in psychology and education, but is best remembered for his pragmatic philosophy. He was also a dedicated Humanist, active in the gathering of endorsement for the first Humanist manifesto in 1933, who tarined a number of students that went on to assume leadership roles in the American Humanist community.

He attended the Universty of Vermont and later earned his Ph.D. at John Hopkins University. He taught at the University of Michigan and the University of Chicago before beginning a quarter of a century as a professor of philosophy at Columbia University (1904-1930). His most active years as a Humanist came in the decades following his retirement. He sat on the advisory board of First Humanist Society of New York, one of the first such institutions in the United States, headed by Charles Francis Potter. In 1936, he was elected an honorary member of the Humanist Press Association (1936).

He also worked for academic freedom. In 1940 he joined fellow Humanist Horace M. Kallen to produce a series of articles concerning the denial of a teaching position to philosopher Bertrand Russell.

Dewey wrote voluminously. By the end of his life, Dewey wrote several hundred books. While he was still active, Milton Halsey Thomas and Herbert Wallace Schneider prepared A Bibliography of John Dewey (New York: Columbia University Press, 1929) later expanded by Thomas as John Dewey: a Centennial Bibliography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). Currently the most helpful bibliographies are Barbara Levine, Works about John Dewey, 1886-1995 (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996), the most complete listing of secondary sources. The most complete list of Dewey’s writings is included in The Philosophy of John Dewey, edited by John McDermott (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).

Primary Sources

Dewey, John. The Collected Works of John Dewey. 37 vols. Ed. by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967-90.

-----. The Early Works, 1882–1898. Ed. by J. A. Boydston. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967.

-----. The Essential Dewey. Ed. by L. Hickman and T. M. Alexander. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

-----. The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1910.

-----. The Later Works, 1925–1953. Ed. by J. A. Boydston . Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1981.

-----. The Middle Works, 1899–1924. Ed. by J. A. Boydston. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967.

-----. The Moral Writings of John Dewey. Ed. by J. Gouinlock. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1994.

-----. Reconstruction in Philosophy. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.

-----. A Common Faith. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1934.

-----. The Quest for Certainty. New York: Minton, Balch, 1929.

-----. “What Humanism Means to Me,” Thinker 2 (1930).

Dewey, John, and Horace M. Kallen. The Bertrand Russell Case. New York: The Viking Press, 1941.

Secondary Sources

Axtelle, George E. “John Dewey’s Concept of ‘The Religious.’” Religious Humanism 1, 2 (Summer 1967): 65-8.

Fesmire, S. John Dewey and Moral Imagination: Pragmatism in Ethics, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.

Garrison, J. W., ed. The New Scholarship on Dewey. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1995.

Grean, Stanley. “Elements of Transcendence in Dewey’s Naturalistic Humanism.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 52 (June 1984): 263-288.

Gouinlock, J. John Dewey’s Philosophy of Value. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1972.

Gouinlock, J. Excellence in Public Discourse: John Stuart Mill, John Dewey, and Social Intelligence. New York: Teachers College Press, 1986.

Hickman, L Reading Dewey: Interpretations for a Postmodern Generation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Kurtz, Paul. John Dewey: An Intellectual Portrait. New York: John Day Co., 1939.

Lamont, Corliss. John Dewey and the American Humanist Association. American Humanist Association, 1960. Reprint of from an article from The Humanist (20, 1, [1960]).

Pappas, G. John Dewey’s Ethics: Democracy as Experience. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.

Rockefeller, Steven C. John Dewey: Religious Faith and Democratic Humanism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991. 683 pp.

Ryan, A. John Dewey and the High Tide of American Liberalism. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.

Shea, William M. “Qualitative Wholes: Aesthetic and Religious Experience in the Work of John Dewey.” Journal of Religion 60 (January) 1980, 32-50.

Tapp. Robert B. “Religious and Secular Effects of Pragmatism.” In Monica Merutiu, Bogdan A. Dicher, Adrian Ludusan, eds. Philosophy of Pragmatism: Religious Premises, Moral Issues, and Historical Impact. Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Editura Fundaliei pentru Studii Europene, 2007, pp. 115-34.

Tiles, J., ed. John Dewey: Critical Assessments. London New York: Routledge, 1992.

Welchman, J. Dewey’s Ethical Thought. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Weldon, Stephen Prugh, The Humanist Enterprise from John Dewey to Carl Sagan. Madison, W: University of Wisconsin, Ph.D. dissertation, 1997.

Westbrook, R. B. John Dewey and American Democracy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

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Sidney Hook

The son of Austrian-Jewish immigrants, Hook later attended the City College of New York and Columbia University (Ph.D., 1927), where he studied philosophy with John Dewey. He then joined the faculty at New York University, where he remained until his retirement in 1972. He was a Marxist in his early years but was critical of Stalin especially after the denouncement of Leon Trotsky. In 1939, he formed the Committee for Cultural Freedom, to oppose "totalitarianism" on both ends of the political spectrum. After the war, he cooperated with the CIA in efforts to dissuade Americans intellectuals from supporting the Soviet Union.

Hook moved further to the right in the decades after World War II. He opposed the New Leftists who supported a broad range of social change. Hios more controversial position found him in support of the Vietnam War and support of the Vietnam War and defending then California Governor Ronald Reagan in his effort to remove African American Marxist feminist Angela Davis as a professor at UCLA. Davis was a member of the Communist Party. He finished his career as a fellow of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace at Stanford University.

For a more complete bibliography on Hook, Barbara Levine’s Sidney Hook: A Checklist of Writings (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University, 1989).

Primary Sources

Hook, Sidney. Education for Modern Man, New York: Dial Press, 1946.

-----. From Hegel to Marx: Studies in the Intellectual Development of Karl Marx, New York: John Day Co., 1936.

-----. Heresy, Yes – Conspiracy, No, New York: American Committee for Cultural Freedom, 1952. 30 pp.

-----. The Hero in History, New York: John Day Co., 1943. 188 pp.

-----. In Defence of Academic Freedom. New York: Pegasus, 1971. 217 pp.

-----. John Dewey: An Intellectual Portrait, New York: John Day Co., 1939. 242 pp.

-----. ed. The Meaning of Marx. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1934. 88 pp. A [Symposium with contributions by Bertrand Russell, John Dewey, Morris R. Cohen, Sherwood Eddy, and Sidney Hook.

-----. The Metaphysics of Pragmatism, Chicago: Open Court Pub. Co., 1927. 144 pp.

-----. Out of Step: An Unquiet Life in the 20th Century, New York: Harper & Row, 1987. 630 pp.

-----. Paradoxes of Freedom, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962. 152 pp.

-----. “Pragmatism and the Tragic Sense of Life,” Commentary 30 (1960), pp 139-149.

-----. Pragmatism and the Tragic Sense of Life. New York Basic Books ,1974. 224pp.

-----. The Quest for ‘Being,’ New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1961. 254 pp.

-----. Sidney Hook on Pragmatism, Democracy, and Freedom: The Essential Essays. Ed. by Robert B. Talisse and Robert Tempio. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002. 420 pp.

-----. Toward the Understanding of Karl Marx: A Revolutionary Interpretation, New York: John Day Co., 1933.

-----. Paul Kurtz and Miro Todorovich (ed.), The Philosophy of the Curriculum, Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1975.

Secondary Sources

Cotter, Mathew J., ed. Sidney Hook Reconsidered. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2004.

Kurtz, Paul. Sidney Hook and the Contemporary World. New York: John Day, 1966.

-----, ed. Sidney Hook: Philosopher of Democracy and Humanism. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983.

Morrison, M. [Pseudonym of Meyer Shapiro]. “Sidney Hook’s Attack on Trotskyism.” Fourth International 4, 7 (1943). Posted at http://www.marxists.org/history/etol/writers/goldman/1943/07/hook.htm.

Phelps, Christopher. Sidney Hook Reconsidered.

-----. Young Sidney Hook: Marxist and Pragmatist. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1997. 2nd ed.: Lansing, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2005.

Phelps, Christopher, “Foreword.” In Sidney Hook. From Hegel to Marx: Studies in the Intellectual Development of Karl Marx. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1962, pp. 1-11.

Postel, Danny, “Sidney Hook, an Intellectual Street Fighter, Reconsidered,” The Chronicle of Higher Education 49, 11 (2002). Posted at http://chronicle.com/article/Sidney-Hook-an-Intellectual/34421.

Ryan, Alan. “Foreword.” In Sidney Hook. Sidney Hook on Pragmatism, Democracy, and Freedom: The Essential Essays. Ed. by Robert B. Talisse and Robert Tempio. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2002, pp. 9-10.

Sidorsky, David. “Charting the Intellectual Career of Sidney Hook: Five Major Steps.” Partisan Review 70, 2 (2003): 324-342. [An edited version of the essay appeared as the “Introduction” to Matthew J. Cotter’s Sidney Hook Reconsidered.]

Tapp. Robert B. “Religious and Secular Effects of Pragmatism.” In Monica Merutiu, Bogdan A. Dicher, and Adrian Ludusan, eds. Philosophy of Pragmatism: Religious Premises, Moral Issues, and Historical Impact. Cluj-Napoca, Romania: Editura Fundaliei pentru Studii Europene, 2007, pp. 115-34.

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Corliss Lamont (1902-1995)

Corliss Lamont, a socialist and Humanist philosopher, was born into a wealthy family in New Jersey. He attended Harvard University and received his Ph.D. from Columbia where he studied philosophy with John Dewey. His dedicatuion to various minority causes led him to the American Civil Liberties Union, which he directed for more than twenty years (1932–1954). He also chaired National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, which successfully challenged Senator Joseph McCarthy‘s senate subcommittee. Atone point Lamont was cited for contempt of Congress, but the appeals court overturned the indictment.

In later life, after he inherited his parent’s wealth, he used the money to make large gifts to severl schools. He ensowed a chair in civil liberties at Harvard. His gifts to Harvard allowed the construction of the Corliss Lamont Rare Book Reading Room at Columbia University. The Room houses among its collections the Corliss Lamont Papers.

Sources

Lamont, Corliss. Freedom is as Freedom Does: Civil Liberties in America. New York: Continuum Pub Group, 1990. 326 pp.

-----. Freedom of Choice Affirmed. New York: Continuum-Half-Moon Foundation,.1990. 214 pp.

-----. Humanism as a Philosophy. New York: Philosophical Library, 1949. 368 pp.

-----. A Humanist Funeral Service. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books 1977. 48 pp.

-----. A Humanist Wedding Service. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, Publishers 1970. 29 pp.

-----, The Illusion of Immortality. New York F. Ungar Publishing Co., 1965. 303 pp.

-----. A Lifetime of Dissent. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. 1988. 414pp.

-----. The Philosophy of Humanism. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1949. Rev. ed.: New York, Philosophical Library, 1957. 243 pp. Posted at http://www.corliss-lamont.org/philos8.htm.

-----. Voice in the Wilderness: Collected Essays of Corliss Lamont. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1975. 344 pp.

-----. Yes to LifeMemoirs of Corliss Lamont. New York: Horizon Press, 1981. 221 pp.Posted at http://www.corliss-lamont.org/books.htm#memoirs.

Wittenberg, Philip, ed. The Lamont Case: History of a Congressional Investigation, Corliss Lamont and the McCarthy Hearings. New York: Horizon Press, 1957.

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Paul Kurtz (b. 1925)

Paul Kurtz, a Professor Emeritus in the department of Philosophy of the State University of New York at Buffalo, emerged step-by-step as the leading apologist for Secular Humanism through the last three decades of the 20th century. After receiving his Ph.D. from Colombia University, he taught as several schools before landing at Buffalo. He drifted from the Marxism of his early years toward Humanism and affiliated with the American humanist Association. In 1969 he founded Prometheus Books, a press that published a number of books on Humanism and related topics.

In the 1970s Kurtz helped author Humanist Manifesto II (1973). He also created a network of scientists and others to attack the growing presence of astrology that led the next year to the founding of the Scientific Committee to Investigate the Claims of the Paranormal (now the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry). This work gave the longstanding effort to counter pseudoscience in the public arena a new foundation.

Then toward the end of the 1970s, Kurtz developed a spectrum of issues with the American Humanist Association, among them a desire to establish Humanism not as a non-theistic religion, but as a totally secular cause. He assumed the designation “Secular humanism,” used as a popular derogatory term by conservative Christians, and hailed it as the perspective of the future. He founded the Council on Secular Humanism, from which a number of related organizations were subsequently created. All the while, Kurtz was writing books and Prometheus Press was steadily building its list of publications.

As the head of a “secular humanist” movement, Kurtz attempted to build a movement that was not religious, but open to working with liberal religious people to reach common goals. In the new century, he ran into the Neo-Atheist movement which took an oppositional stance to all religion, about which it had nothing positive to say. The division within the Council and its several auxiliary organizations over the Neo-Atheist perspective led to Kurtz’s being stripped of his power and eventually to his resigning and beginning a new organization, the Institute for Science and Human Values.

Through his long career, Kurtz has been a most productive scholar and defeneder of the Humanist cause. A more complete list of his writings can be found in Ranjit Sandhu and Matthew J. Cravatta’s Media-graphy: A Bibliography of the Works of Paul Kurtz, Fifty-one Years, 1952-2003. (Amherst, NY: Center for Inquiry, International, 2004).

Primary Sources

Kurtz, Paul. Affirmations: Joyful and Creative Exuberance. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books 2004. 127 pp.

-----. “Breaking with the Old Humanism.” Free Inquiry 8, 1 (1987): 5.

------ et al. Challenges to the Enlightenment: In Defense of Reason and Science. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1994. 319 pp.

-----. The Courage to Become. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood, 1997. 138 pp.

-----. Embracing the Power of Humanism, 2000, Rowman & Littlefield

-----. Exuberance: An Affirmative Philosophy of Life. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1978.

-----. Forbidden Fruit: The Ethics of Humanism. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1988.

-----. “Homer Duncan’s Crusade against Secular Humanism.” Free Inquiry 6, 1 (1985): 37-42.

-----. “Humanism.” In Gordon Stein, ed. The Encyclopedia of Unbelief. Vol. 1. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985, pp. 328-333.

-----, ed. The Humanist Alternative. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1973. Rpt.: London: Pemberton Press, 1973.

-----. Humanist Manifesto 2000: A Call for New Planetary Humanism. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2000. 76 pp.

-----. In Defense of Secular Humanism. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1983. 273pp.

-----. Living Without Religion: Eupraxophy Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1994. 159 pp.

-----. “A Secular Humanist Declaration.” Free Inquiry 1, 1 (1980): 3-6.

-----. Sidney Hook and the Contemporary World. New York: John Day, 1966.

-----, ed. Sidney Hook: Philosopher of Democracy and Humanism. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983.

-----. “The Two Humanisms in Conflict: Religious vs. Secular.” Free Inquiry 11 (Fall 1991): 49-51.

-----. What Is Secular Humanism? Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books 2007. 42 pp.

-----. “‘Why I Am a Skeptic About Religious Claims.” Free Inquiry 26 (2006), p. 30f.

Secondary Sources

Madigan, Tim. Toward a New Enlightenment: The Philosophy of Paul Kurtz. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1994.

Tapp. Robert B. “Religious and Secular Effects of Pragmatism.” In Monica Merutiu, Bogdan A. Dicher, Adrian Ludu§an, eds. Philosophy of Pragmatism: Religious Premises, Moral Issues, and Historical Impact. Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Editura Fundaliei pentru Studii Europene, 2007, pp. 115-34.

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The Chicago School

In the early twentieth century, the University of Chicago became the meeting place of a number of scholars who were among the most liberal and radical in the country, some, like James Luther Adams being Unitarians and some like Edward Scribner Ames being members of more mainstream churches. Their radical explorations of religion led them to Humanism and related non-theistic perspectives.

Sources

Adams, James Luther. The Essential James Luther Adams: Selected Essays and Addresses. Edited with introduction by George Kimmich Beach. Boston: Skinner House Books, 1998.

------. An Examined Faith: Social Context and Religious Commitment. Edited with introduction by George K. Beach. Boston: Beacon Press, 1991.

-----. Not Without Dust and Heat: A Memoir. Chicago: Exploration Press, 1995.

-----. On Being Human Religiously: Selected Essays on Religion and Society. Edited with introduction by Max L. Stackhouse. Boston: Beacon Press, 1976.

Ames, Edward Scribner, “Humanism Fulfilled.” Christian Century 54, 35 (Sept. 1, 1937): 1075f.
Review of Charles Hartshorne’s Beyond Humanism.

-----. Beyond Theology The Autobiography of Edward Scribner Ames. Ed. by Van Meter Ames. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959. 223 pp.

Letters to God and the Devil. New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1933

-----. The Psychology of Religious Experience. Boston Houghton Mifflin 1910. 490 pp.

-----. Religion. New York: Henry Holt,, 1929. 324 pp.

Ames, Van Meter. Prayers and Meditations of Edward Scribner Ames. Chicago: The Disciples Divinity House 1970. 144 p

Arnold, Charles Harvey. Near the Edge of Battle: A Short History of the Divinity School and the Chicago School of Theology, 1866-1966. Chicago: Divinity School Association, University of Chicago, 1966.

-----. “A School That Walks the Earth: Edward Scribner Ames and the Chicago School of Theology.” Encounter 30 (Fall 1969): 314-339.

Garrison, Winfred E. Faith of the Free. Chicago: Willett, Clark, 1940.
A volume of essays in honor of Edward Scribner Ames.

“Edward Scribner Ames.” The Scroll 49.4 (Spring 1958): 1-30.
Special issue devoted to Ames, containing many tributes to him.

Hartshorne, Charles. Beyond Humanism: Essays in the New Philosophy of Nature. Chicago Willett, Clark & Company, 1937. Rpt.: Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press/Bison Books, 1968.

Minor, William S., ed. Directives from Charles Hartshorne and Henry Nelson Wieman Critically Analyzed. Philosophy of Creativity Monograph Series, Vol. I. Carbondale: The Foundation for Creative Philosophy, Inc., 1969.

Peden, W. Creighton, and Jerome Arthur Stone. The Chicago School of Theology: Pioneers in Religious Inquiry. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1996.

Rich, Charles M. Henry Nelson Wieman’s Functional Theism as Transcending Event. Chicago: University of Chicago, Ph.D. dissertation, 1963.

Southworth, Bruce. At Home in Creativity: The Naturalistic Theology of Henry Nelson Wieman. Boston, 1995.

Stone, Jerome Arthur. Religious Naturalism Today: The Rebirth of a Forgotten Alternative. Albany, NY: State University of New York, 2008.

Toogood, Henry. A Comparative Analysis of Two Contemporary Philosophers of Religion, Edward Scribner Ames and Arthur Campbell Garnett, Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College, S.T.M. Thesis, 1949.

Wieman, Henry Nelson. The Directive in History: Ayer Lectures, 1948. Boston: Beacon Press, 1949.

-----. Intellectual Foundation of Faith. New York: Philosophical Library, 1961. 212 pp.

-----. Is There a God? A Conversation [with Douglas Clyde MacIntosh and Max Carl Otto]. Chicago: Willett, Clark & Co., 1932. 328 pp.

-----. Man’s Ultimate Commitment. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1991. 330 pp.

-----. Religious Experience and Scientific Method. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press 1954 387pp.

-----. Seeking a Faith for a New Age: Essays on the Interdependence of Religion, Science and Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers 1975.

-----. Source of Human Good. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.

Wilcox, John R., Taking Time Seriously: James Luther Adams. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America. 1978. 214pp

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Canada

While strongly interacting with Humanism and atheism in the united States, the Freethought tradition has a separate and independent, if under-studied, tradition in Canada. In addition, Unitarianism was established in Canada in the early nineteenth century. Today, the community is focused in two national organizations-- the Humanist Association of Canada and the Freethought Association of Canada—and a number of local groups.

Sources

Adams, Robert (1839-1882). Evolution. New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1883.

-----. Good without God. New York: Peter Eckler, 1902.

-----. Lectures on Rationalism. New York: Truth Seeker Company, 1889.

-----. Pioneer Pith. Truth Seeker Co., New York, 1889.

-----. Travels in Faith from Tradition to Reason. Truth Seeker Co., New York. 1884.

Gauvin, Marshall J. Fundamentals of Freethought. New York Peter Eckler Publishing 1923. 216 pp.

Gray, James H. “Canada’s Anti-Christ.” Canadian Forum (1935). On Marshall Jerome Gauvin.

Hardie, Glenn. “Brock Chisholm: Canadian Humanist.” Humanist in Canada 107 (Winter 1993-94).

Hewett, Philip. Unitarians in Canada: How the Unitarians Have Exerted a Powerful Influence on Canadian Life for Over 150 Years. Don Mills, ON: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1978. 390 pp.

Howard-Snyder, Daniel. “The Argument from Divine Hiddenness,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26 (1996): 433-453

McKillop, A. Brian. A Disciplined Intelligence: Critical Inquiry in Canadian Thought in the Victorian Era. Montreal: Queen’s University Press, 1979.

J. L. Schellenberg, J. L. Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993.

-----. “Response to Howard-Snyder,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26 (1996): 455-462.

 “Unbelief in Canada.” In Gordon Stein. The Encyclopedia of Unbelief. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985, pp. 81-6.

Stein, Gordon. “Freethought in Canada.” In Freethought in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. 1981.

-----. Freethought in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. 1981. See Appendix II, “Freethought in Canada.”

Unitarianism in Canada: A Decade of Growth. Toronto: Canadian Unitarian Council, 1963.

Watts, Heather, ed. Guide to the Records of the Canadian Unitarian and Universalist Churches, Fellowships and Other Related Organizations. [Halifax, Nova Scotia?]: Archives Committee, 1990. 301 pp.

Watts, Kate Eunice. Christianity Defective and Unnecessary. Toronto: Secular Thought Office, 1900.

------. Reasons for not Accepting Christianity. London: Watts, 1877.

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