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A Historical Bibliography> Table of Contents> Contemporary Unbelief

Please credit San Diego State University, Department of Religious Studies in publications. Copyright San Diego State University.

Current Advocates

The Death of God Movement


Major Exponents

New Atheism and the Community of Unbelief

Muslim Critiques of Neo-Atheism

Christian Critiques of Neo-Atheism

Global Perspectives

Unbelief—Sociological and Demographic Studies


Current Advocates

As the twenty-first century begins, non-theistic perspectives on the world and engagement with the larger culture in the western world as become a pervasive element in the struggles of individuals to create a viable worldview and the debates in society over the spectrum of issues which will determine the shape of the community for the next generation. Atheist literature now runs the gamut from outspoken atheists’ forceful presentations of the rationale for a non-theistic, non-religious life, to people who happen to be atheists writing their opinions on various issues without mentioning their views relative to a deity, religious beliefs and practices. One could with relative ease construct a book-length bibliography of materials written by atheists just since the beginning of 2000 and just in English. Below are some of the more important and relatively available items that convey the present state of discourse on the atheism vs. theism issue.


Baggini, Julian. Atheism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. 136 pp.

Berlinerblau, Jacques. Why Unbelievers Must Take Religion Seriously. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 232 pp.

Blackford, Russell, and , Udo Schuklenk, eds. 50 Voices of Disbelief: Why We Are Atheists. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 256 pp.

Cady, Linell E., and, Elizabeth Shakman Hurd. 2010. Comparative Secularisms in a Global Age. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. 302 pp.

Carrier, Richard. Sense and Goodness without God: A Defense of Metaphysical Naturalism. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2005. 444 pp.

Comte-Sponville, André. The Little Book of Atheist Spirituality. New York: Viking, 2007. 212 pp.

Converse, Raymond W. Atheism as a Positive Social Force. New York: Algora Publishing, 2003. 244 pp.

Goldberg, Michelle. Kingdom Coming: The rise of Christian nationalism. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2006. 272 pp.

-----. The Means of Reproduction: Sex, Power, and the Future of the World. New York: Penguin, 2009. 272 pp.

Grayling, A. C. Against All Gods. London: Oberon Books, 2007.

Harrison, Guy P. 50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2008. 354 pp.

Hecht, Jennifer Michael. Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas Jefferson and Emily Dickinson. New York: HarperOne, 2004. 576 pp.

Herrick, Jim. Humanism: An Introduction. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2005. 105 pp.

Joshi, S. T., ed. The Agnostic Reader. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007. 286 pp.

-----. Atheism: A Reader. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2000. 346 pp.

-----. Atheists, Agnostics, and Secularists. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008. 463 pp.

-----. The Unbelievers: The Evolution of Modern Atheism. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2011. 304 pp.

Loftus, John W. The Christian Delusion: Why Faith Fails. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2010). 422 pp.

Martin, Michael. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (October 30, 2006. 352 pp.

-----, and Ricki Monnier. The Impossibility of God. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2003. 425 pp.

Mills, David. Atheist Universe: The Thinking Person's Answer to Christian Fundamentalism. Berkelye, CA: Ulysses Press, 2006. 272 pp.

Mooney, Chris. 2005. The Republican War on Science. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

Mooney, Chris, and Sheril Kirshenbaum.. Unscientific America: How scientific illiteracy threatens our future. New York: Basic Books, 2009.

Shermer, Michael. How We Believe: The Search for God in an Age of Science. New York: Freeman, 2000. 302 pp.

Shook, John R. Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality. The Vanderbilt Library of American Philosophy. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2000.

-----. Pragmatic Naturalism & Realism. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2003.

-----, and André De Tienne. The Cambridge School of Pragmatism. The Foundations of Pragmatism in American Thought. London ; New York: Thoemmes Continuum, 2006.

-----, and Joseph Margolis. A Companion to Pragmatism. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006.

Vaughn, Lewis, and Austin Dacey. The Case for Humanism: An Introduction. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.

Warner, Michael, Jonathan Van Antwerpen, and, Craig Calhoun, eds. Varieties of Secularism in a Secular Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.

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The Death of God Movement

The Death of God Movement burst on the Christian community suddenly in the spring of 1966 when Time Magazine featured a cover story on the small group of theological radicals who largely in reaction to (1) the problem of evil posed by the Jewish Holocaust and/or (2) the secular world in which they lived suggested to their religious colleagues that a non-theistic form of faith was necessary. The movement prompted both a reactionary response by theologians offended by the audacity of the pronouncement of God’s death, a phrase borrowed from German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and  drawing inspiration from the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and a more tempered response by theologians who rejected the conclusion but were sympathetic to the issued the Death of God theologians raised. The phrase also drew directly from some of the more radical pronouncements of two mid-twentieth century theologians, Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer, who had separated the concepts of religion and Christianity and hinted at a religion-less form of faith. The movement lasted only a few years but placed the issue of contemporary secularization clearly on the theological agenda.

Among the voices of the movement, the single Jewish voice, Richard Rubenstein continued to exercise an influential voice in the decades since the Death of God movement expired. He continued to reflect on the meaning of the Holocaust and secularization, defended Israel’s right to take possession of a homeland, and developed a long-term relationship with the Rev. Sun Myung Moon, founder of the Unification Church.

Primary Sources

Altizer, Thomas J. J.  The Gospel of Christian Atheism.  Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966.

-----. Living the Death of God: A Theological Memoir. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006.

-----. New Gospel of Christian Atheism. Aurora, CO: Davies Group, 2002.

-----, ed. Toward A New Christianity: Readings in the Death of God. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967.

----- and William Hamilton. Radical Theology and the Death of God.  Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966. 202 pp.

Altizer, Thomas J. J. and John Warwick Montgomery The Altizer-Montgomery Dialogue: a Chapter in the God is Dead Controversy. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1970.

Hamilton, William. The New Essence of Christianity. New York: Association Press, 1966. 159 pp.

-----. On Taking God out of the Dictionary. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1974. 255 pp.

-----. A Quest for the Post-Historical Jesus. London, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 1994.

-----. Shakespeare, God, and Me. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2000. 168 pp.

Rubenstein, Richard J. After Auschwitz: Radical Theology and Contemporary Judaism. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966. 287 pp

----.  "God after the Death of God." In After Auschwitz: History, Theology, and Contemporary Judaism. 2nd. ed.  Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1992, pp. 293-306.

-----. Modernization: The Humanist Response to Its Promise & Problems. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1986. 353 pp.

Rubenstein, Richard L., and John K. Roth.  Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust and Its Legacy. 2nd edition. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003. 512 pp.

Vahanian, Gabriel. Anonymous God: An Essay on Not Dreading Words. Aurora, CO: Davies Group, 2002.

-----. The Death of God: The Culture of Our Post-Christian Era. New York: George Braziller, 1961.

-----. Wait Without Idols. New York: George Braziller, 1964.

-----. No Other God. New York: George Braziller, 1966.

Van Buren, Paul M. The Secular Meaning of the Gospel Based on an Analysis of Its Language. New York: Macmillan, 1966.

Secondary Sources

Bruce, Steve. God is Dead: Secularization in the West. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. 288 pp.

Caputo, John D., and Gianni Vattimo. After the Death of God. Ed. by Jeffrey W. Robbins. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Glynn, Patrick. “Beyond The Death of God” National Review (May 6, 1996): 28-32. Posted at

Hamilton, Kenneth. God is Dead: The anatomy of a slogan. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1966. 86 pp.

Kaufmann, Walter.  Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974.

Lyas, Colin. "On the Coherence of Christian Atheism." The Journal of the Royal Institute of Philosophy 45, 171 (1970).

Montgomery, John. The `Is God Dead?' Controversy. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1966.

Munro, Howard. A Re-Evaluation of the Death of God Theology. Southport, Queensland, Aust.: Griffith University, Ph.D. dissertation, 2000.

Murchland, Bernard, ed. The Meaning of the Death of God.  New York: Random House, 1967.

Ogden, Schubert M. The Reality of God and Other Essays. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University Press, 1992. 238 pp.

Ogletree, Thomas W. The Death of God Controversy. New York: Abingdon Press, 1966.

Roberts, Tyler T. Contesting Spirit: Nietzsche, Affirmation, Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Stauffer, Jill, and Bettina Bergo, eds. Nietzsche and Levinas: After the Death of a Certain God. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Van Til, Cornelius.  Is God Dead? Philipsburg, PA: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1966.

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Neo-Atheism, a term coined by journalist Gary Wolf in 2006, burst on the scene in the middle of the first decade of the new century as a new aggressive form of atheist thought, characterized most notably by the willingness of their proponents to attack religion as a harmful delusion and their anger that conservative advocates of what they saw as anti-scientific opinions were gaining power. Adding to their motivation were public surveys showing the persistence of anti-evolutionary perspective among conservative Christians, opinions shared by many conservative Muslims.

While particularly targeting Conservative Evangelical Christians, Neo-atheists also included all religious believers in their attacks, and in so doing found themselves at odds with proponents of non-theistic religions (especially proponents of religious humanism and Ethical Culture). Their critique also called into question the idea of making common cause with people holding liberal religious perspectives on issues such as separation of church and state, public funding of private religious schools, and the teaching of biological science in the public schools.

Neo-Atheism has been built upon the successful books of its major exponents, beginning with British biologist Richard Dawkins. In the United States, author Christopher Hitchens, has been joined by Sam Harris (with a Ph.D. in neuroscience), philosopher Daniel Dennett, and physicist Victor J. Stenger in leading the charge for a more public role for atheists. They have become frequent guests on television talk shows and made themselves available to the press. While energizing the core of atheist unbelievers, it is yet to be seen whether their efforts will substantively enlarge the support for non-theism in the larger population. The movement has, however, provoked a massive reaction among Christian scholars and polemicists, most notably Anglican theologians and converts from atheism, Aleister McGrath, and a veritable flood of anti-Neo-Atheism books have begun to flow from the Christian press, both Protestant and Catholic.

Humanist and atheist critics of Neo-Atheism have argued that the content of Neo-Atheism is not new, only restated in a new aggressive manner. They are also seen as destroying coalitions which atheists need to accomplish many of their goals, since, especially in the United States, they remain a minority in an overwhelming religious environment. The internal debates within the atheist community have already led to battles for control of various atheist organizations, most notably the Council for Secular Humanism and its associated Centers for Inquiry scattered across North America.

Major Exponents


Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1996. 496 pp.

-----. A Devil's Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love. New York: Mariner Books, 2004. 272 pp.

-----. The God Delusion. New York: Mariner Books, 2008. 464 pp.

-----. The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution. Free Press, 2009. 480 pp.

-----. The Selfish Gene. 30th anniversary ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

-----. Unweaving the Rainbow: Science, Delusion and the Appetite for Wonder. New York: Mariner Books, 2000. 352 pp.

Dennett, Daniel. Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. New York: Penguin, 2006.

-----. Consciousness Explained. New York: Back Bay Books, 1992. 528 pp.

-----. Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. 586 pp.

-----. Freedom Evolves. New York: Penguin, 2004. 328 pp.

Grothe, D. J. “Taking a Stand for the New Atheists: A Discussion with Victor J. Stenger.” Free Inquiry 30, 3 (April/May 2010): 6, 43.

Harris, Sam. The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2004.

-----. Letter to a Christian Nation. London: Bantam, 2007.

-----. The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values. New york: Free Press, 2010. 304 pp.

Hitchens, Christopher. God Is Not Great: The Case against Religion. London: Atlantic Books, 2007.

-----. Hitch-22: A Memoir. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2010. 448 pp.

-----, ed. The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2007. 528 pp.

Kick, Russ, ed. Everything You Know About God Is Wrong: The Disinformation Guide to Religion. New York: The Disinformation Company, 2007. 388 pp.

Mills, David. Atheist Universe: The Thinking Person's Answer to Christian Fundamentalism. Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press, 2006. 272 pp.

Stewart,  Robert B., ed. The Future of Atheism: Alister McGrath and Daniel Dennett in Dialogue. Minneaplis, MN: Fortress Press, 2008.

Stenger, Victor J. The New Atheism: Taking a Stand for Science and Reason. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2009. 282 pp.

Welleman, CJ. God Hates You, Hate Him Back: Making Sense of The Bible (Revised International Edition). Dangerous Little Books, 2009. 302 pp.

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New Atheism and the Community of Unbelief


Amarasingam, Amarnath, ed. Religion and the New Atheism: A Critical Appraisal. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

-----. “What is the New Atheism? A Thematic Overview.” in Amarath Amarasingam ed. Religion and the New Atheism: A Critical Appraisal. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Arcaro, Tom. “The Stigma of Being an Atheist: An Empirical Study on the
New Atheist Movement and its Consequences.” Skeptic Magazine 15, 4 (2010). 

Borer, Michael. “The New Atheism and the Secularization Thesis.” In Amarath Amarasingam ed. Religion and the New Atheism: A Critical Appraisal. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Brook, Andrew, and Don Ross. Daniel Dennett. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 320 pp.

Bullivant, Stephen. “The New Atheism and Sociology: Why Here? Why Now? What Next?” In Amarath Amarasingam ed. Religion and the New Atheism: A Critical Appraisal. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Flynn, Tom. “Why I Don’t Believe in the New Atheism.” Free Inquiry 30, 3 (April/May 2010): 7, 43.

Hedges, Chris. I Don't Believe in Atheists. New York: Free Press, 2008

Stahl, William. “One-Dimensional Rage: The Social Epistemology of the New Atheism and Fundamentalism.” In Amarath Amarasingam, ed. Religion and the New Atheism: A Critical Appraisal. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Wood, James. “God in the Quad,” The New Yorker (August 31, 2009): 75.

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Muslim Critiques of Neo-Atheism


Whitehouse, Bill. Sam Harris and the End Of Faith: A Muslim's Critical Response. CreateSpace, 2009. 178 pp.

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Christian Critiques of Neo-Atheism


Aikman, David. The Delusion of Disbelief: Why the New Atheism is a Threat to Your Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2008. 256 pp.

Beattie, Tina. The New Atheists: The Twilight of Reason and the War on Religion. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2008. 209 pp.

Brown, Andrew. "Dawkins the Dogmatist." Prospect Magazine 127 (2006).

Cornwell, John. Darwin's Angel: A Seraphic Response to 'the God Delusion'. London: Profile, 2007.

Dalrymple,Theodore “What the New Atheists Don’t See.City Journal (Autumn 2007). Posted at

David, Andrew, Christopher J. Keller, Jon Stanley, eds. God Is Dead and I Don't Feel So Good Myself: Theological Engagements with the New Atheism. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2005.

Eagleton, Terry. "Lunging, Flailing, Mispunching." The London Review of Books 28, 20 (October 2006).

Fergusson, David. Faith and Its Critics: A Conversation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. 176 pp.

Goetz, Stewart, and Charles Taliaferro. Naturalism (Interventions). Grand Rapids, MI: William. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2008. 132 pp.

Hahn, Scott, and Benjamin Wiker.  Answering the New Atheism: Dismantling Dawkins' Case against God. Stubenville, OH: Emmaus Road Publishing, 2008. 151 pp.

Haught, John F. God and the New Atheism: A Critical Response to Dawkins, Harris, and Hitchens. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2007. 156 pp.

McGrath, Alister. The Dawkins Delusion. London: SPCK, 2007.

-----. Dawkins' God: Genes, Memes, and the Meaning of Life. Oxford: Blackwell, 2005.

McGrath, Alister, The Twilight of Atheism: The Rise and Fall of Disbelief in the Modern World. New York: Doubleday, 2004.

Marshall, David. The Truth Behind the New Atheism: Responding to the Emerging Challenges to God and Christianity. Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 2007. 240 pp.

Vetter, Herbert F. Is God Necessary? No! and Yes! Cambridge, MA: Harvard Square Library, 2007.

Ward, Keith. Is Religion Dangerous? Oxford: Lion, 2006.

-----. Why There Almost Certainly Is a God: Doubting Dawkins. Oxford: Lion UK (April 1, 2009. 160 pp.

Wolf, Gary. “The Church of the Non-Believers.” Wired (November 2006).

Wood, James. “God in the Quad,” The New Yorker (August 31, 2009): 75.

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Global Perspectives

Contemporary atheism traces its beginnings to Europe and the sixteenth century critique of Christianity. Beginning in the nineteenth century, it has spread globally, primarily through Marxism, but took different forms as it encountered different host cultures. With the rise of an outspoken secularism in post-World War II Europe (somewhat countered by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cultural Revolution in China), the state of atheism in both its Marxist and non-Marxist forms has become a continuing topic of interest. The essays in Atheism and Secularity, Phil Zuckerman’s two volume anthology, summarize most of what is currently known about the global atheist community.

While this bibliography concentrates on atheism in North America and Western Europe (especially the United Kingdom, Germany, and France) that topic naturally leads into the more global perspectives. The Atheist Alliance International, an international coalition of Atheist organizations was founded in 1991 by mostly North American Atheist organizations, but though still dominated by American groups, now includes representative groups from Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, and Australia. In like measure, the International Humanist and Ethical Union has grown to include representative groups from more than 40 nations.


Eller, Jack David. “Atheism and Secularism in the Arab World.” In Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

Hiorth, Finngeir. Atheism in India (1998), in English.

-----. Secularism in Germany (1997), published in English.

-----. Secularism in Holland, Belgium, and Luxemburg (2000), in English.

-----.  Secularism in Sweden. Oslo, Norway: Human-Etisk Forbund, 1995

Narisetti, Innaiah. “Atheism and Secularity in India.” in Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

Patrikios, Stratos. “Religious Deprivatisation in Modern Greece.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 24, 3 (2009): 357-362.

Roemer, Michael K. “Atheism and Secularity in Modern Japan” In Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

Tong, Liang. “Atheism and Secularity in China.” In Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

Yirenkyi, Kwasi, and Baffour K. Taylor. “Some Insights into Atheism and Secularity in Ghana.” In Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

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Unbelief—Sociological and Demographic Studies

Sociology began as a discipline that was decidedly secular and like psychology spawned several generations of scholars who not only believed that religion was declining and on its last legs, but looked forward to a society without religion. As religion continued to grow through the twentieth century, especially in North America, a new sub-discipline of the field, the sociology of religion, emerged and through the last half of the twentieth century created a mass of material on religion, offered a critique of secularization theories, and has attempted to explain the counter intuitive success of religion globally.

Sociologists of religion neglected the study of atheism, a topic that did not immediately yield to their analysis, but since the 1990s, that lacunae in the study of the place of religion in the modern world is beginning to be filled. An ever growing body of social science literature has developed on Non-belief, much attempting to measure the present size of the non-believing community, with additional studies attempting to understand the nature of people who choose to be atheists, partially an attempt to correct opinions about the irreligious spread by religious polemicists.

The material cited below has been selected from the growing abundance of social science observations of the atheist community and that element of the population which expresses no support for religion and/or belief in a deity, primarily in North America and Western Europe. Emerging with a leading role in producing and nurturing such studies is the Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture (ISSSC) at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut.  ISSSC, established in 2005 by Barry Kosmin, attempts to understand the role of secular values and the parallel process of secularization in society and culture. Also, most recently (2011), Sociologist Phil Zuckerman has established a unique interdisciplinary degree program in secularism at Pitzer College in Claremont, California.


Acquaviva, Sabino. “Some Reflections on the Parallel Decline of Religious Experience and Religious Practice.” In Eileen Barker, James A. Beckford and Karel Dobbelaere, eds.  Secularization, Rationalism and Religious Practice: Essays in Honour of Bryan R. Wilson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993, pp. 47-58.

Altemeyer, Bob. “Non-Belief and Secularity in North America.” In Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

Bainbridge, William Sims. “Atheism.” Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion 1, 1 (2005): 1-24.

-----. “Atheism.” in Peter Clarke, ed. The Oxford Handbook of the Sociology of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 319-35

-----. Across the Secular Abyss: From Faith to Wisdom. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Bellah, Robert N. "The Historical Background of Unbelief." In Rocco Caporale and Antonio Grumelli, eds., The Culture of Unbelief, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 39-42.

-----, "Religion and Secularization in Modern Societies." Papers in Comparative Studies, 3, Religion in the Modern World, Columbus, OH: Center for Comparative Studies in the Humanities, The Ohio State University, 1984, pp. 7-22.

Berger, Peter L., ed. The Desecularization of the World. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1999.

Bruce, Steve. God is Dead: Secularisation in the West, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

-----, ed. Religion and Modernisation: Sociologists and Historians Debate the Secularization Thesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Bullivant, Stephen. “Introducing Irreligious Experiences.” Implicit Religion 11, 1, (2008): 7-24.

-----. “Sociology and the Study of Atheism.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 23, 3 (2008): 16-31

Campbell, Colin. "Humanism in Britain: The Formation of a Secular Value-oriented Movement." In David Martin, ed. A Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain, Vol. 2. London: SCM Press, 1969, pp. 157-172.

-----. Toward a Sociology of Irreligion. New York: Herder and Herder, 1972.

Cary, Linell. “Secularism, Secularizing, and Secularization: Reflections on Stout's Democracy and Tradition.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 27, 3 (2005): 871-85.

Chaves, M. “Secularization As Declining Religious Authority.”  Social Forces 72, 3 (1994): 749–74.

 Crockett, A., and D. Voas. “Generations of Decline: Religious Change in 20th-Century Britain.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 45, 4, (2006): 567-84.

Dobbelaere, Karel. “Some Trends in European Sociology of Religion: The Secularization Debate.” Sociological Analysis 48 (1987): 107–137.

Ecklund, E. H., and J. Z. Park. “Conflict between Science and Religion among Academic Scientists?” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48, 2 (2009): 276-92a.

Edgell, Penny, Joseph Gerteis, and Douglas Hartmann. “Atheists as ‘Other’: Moral Boundaries and Cultural Membership in American Society.” American Sociological Review 71, 2 (2006): 211-34.

Fahey, Tony. “Is Atheism Increasing? Ireland and Europe Compared.” In E. G. Cassidy, ed. Measuring Ireland: Discerning Values and Beliefs. Dublin: Veritas, 2002, pp. 46-66

Farias, m., and M. Lalljee. “Holistic individualism in the Age of Aquarius: Measuring individualism/collectivism in New Age, Catholic and atheist/agnostic groups.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47, 2 (2008): 277-289.

Froese, Paul, and Steven Pfaff. “Bringing Demand into the Supply-Side Model of Religion: State Regulation, Atheism and Causes of Secularization.” Social Forces 2 (2001): 481–507

-----. “Explaining a Religious Anomaly: A Historical Analysis of Secularization in Eastern Germany.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44, 4, (2005) 397-422.

Glickman, Allen. “A Mighty Fortress is Our Atheism: Defining the Nature of Religiousness in the Elderly.” Journal of Religious Gerontology 14, 1 (2002): 69-83

Greeley, Andrew M. Religion in Europe at the End of the Second Millennium. New Brunswick: Transaction, 2003.

---. Unsecular Man: The Persistence of Religion. New York: Schocken, 1972.

Hale, J. Russell. The Unchurched: Who They Are and Why They Stay That Way. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.

Halman, L., and V. Drulans. “How Secular is Europe?” British Journal of Sociology 57, 2, (2006): 263-88.

Hout, Michael, and Claude S. Fischer. “Why More Americans Have No Religious Preference.” American Sociological Review 67, 2 (2002): 165-90.

Hunsberger, Bruce E., and Bob Altemeyer. Atheists: A Groundbreaking Study of America’s Nonbelievers. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Press, 2006. 159 pp.

-----, M. Pratt, and S. M. Pancer. “A Longitudinal Study of Religious Doubts in High School and Beyond: Relationships, Stability, and Searching for Answers.” Journal of Scientific Study of Religion 41, 2 (2002): 255-66.

Hunter, James Davison. "‘America's Fourth Faith’: A Sociological Perspective on Secular Humanism." This World 19, (Fall 1987): 101-110.

Iannaccone, L. R., and M. D. Makowsky. “Accidental Atheists? Agent-Based Explanations for the Persistence of Religious Regionalism.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46, 1 (2007): 1-16.

Jones, Kenneth. “Toward a Sociology of Irreligion: The Culture of Unbelief.” Sociology 7 (May 1973): 289-291.

Kosmin, Barry A., and Ariela Keysar. Religion in a Free Market. Religious and Non-Religious Americans Who, What, Why, Where. Ithaca, NY: Paramount Market Publishing, 2006. 320 pp.

-----, eds. Secularism and Secularity: Contemporary International Perspectives. Hartford, CT: Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society & Culture, 2007.

Krieger, Andrew Robert. Structural Ambiguity in a Social Movement Organization: A Case Study of the American Humanist Association. Washington, DC: Georgetown University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1983.

Lee, Lois. The “Secular” Individual in Britain: Toward a Sociology of (Ir)religion. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, M.Phil. dissertation, 2006.

Llera Blanes, Ruy. “The Atheist Anthropologist: Believers and Non-Believers in Anthropological Fieldwork.” Social Anthropology 14, 2 (2006): 223-34.

Lynn, Richard, John Harvey, and Helmuth Nyborg. “Average Intelligence Predicts Atheism Rates Across 137 Nations.” Intelligence 37, 1 (2009): 11-15.

Martin, David. A General Theory of Secularization. Oxford: Blackwell, 1978.

-----. "The Secularization Issue: Prospect and Retrospect." British Journal of Sociology 42/3 (1991): 465-74.

Morrison, John Lee. A History of American Catholic Opinion on the Theory of Evolution, 1859-1950. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri, Ph.D. Dissertation, 1951.

Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

O’Brian Baker, Joseph, and Buster Smith. “None Too Simple: Examining Issues of Religious Nonbelief and Nonbelonging in the United States.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48, 4 (2009): 719-733.

Pasquale, Frank I. “A Portrait of Secular Group Affiliates.” In Phil Zuckerman, ed. Atheism and Secularity. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2009.

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